**
Kevin McCurley
IBM Almaden Research Center
**

**Goals:**

- some history
- description of the field
- identify mathematical activities
- identify some open problems

- Terminology
- What is information protection?
- Some Applications
- The role of mathematics
- Mathematical activities
- Mathematical activities (continued)
- Define security by characterizing adversary
- What does ``breaking'' mean?
- Cryptographic Milestones
- The birth of mathematical rigor
- Basics of encryption
- Shannon's approach to secrecy
- Emergence of public key cryptography
- Diffie-Hellman key exchange
- One way and collision-free functions
- Digital signatures Merkle, Diffie, Hellman
- Footnote from the parallel universe
- More cryptographic milestones
- Secret sharing
- Pseudorandom number generators
- Pseudo-random functions
- More cryptographic milestones
- Zero-knowledge proofs
- Zero knowledge example: Fiat-Shamir proof of identity
- Some open problems
- About this document ...