cs2cs +init=nad27:3001 +to +proj=latlong +datum=WGS84which will convert coordinates from NAD27 New Mexico State Plane Coordinates, East zone, in US Surveyor Feet into Latitude/longitude with the WGS84 datum. Similarly,
cs2cs +proj=latlong +datum=WGS84 +to +init=nad27:3001will do the reverse. Consult the documentation for proj.4 and cs2cs if that isn't detailed enough for you.
This had no other normal place on my web site, so I'm sticking it here. This is a PDF file containing 12 copies of a UTM interpolator for 1:24000 scale topo maps. Print it out on transparency sheets, cut 'em out and laminate them in ID card sized laminate, and you will have a useful tool for plotting UTM coordinates on paper maps.
If you have a PostScript printer (or a copy of Ghostscript and drivers for your non-postscript printer), you might be interested in the original PostScript file from which the PDF was generated. It is a hand-written PostScript program to generate the grids, and can be edited with a plain-text editor to change the scale or the number produced. I produced the PDF version using Ghostscript's "write to PDF" capability
I always build Xastir with shapefile and "dbfawk" support. With these two options you can have access to lots of maps and can tune their appearance to your liking. If you build GDAL as well, you can get some tools that you can use to generate more maps.
I have created quite a few shapefiles for my own use, and this page is an attempt to start sharing them. All the files here are meant to be used along with a DBFAWK-enabled version of Xastir, although the shapefiles are perfectly general and can be used for any other purpose, too. I highly recommend the open source Geographic Information System GRASS for those other purposes.
I update the dbfawk files often as I fine tune how they look. You might want to take a look now and then to see if I have changed them. If you feel I've made a particularly ugly map using my dbfawk files, please feel free to feed back your changes to me.
Converting TIGER/Line data to shapefile format
It has just come to my attention that there is a commercial tool called TGR2SHP that can convert TIGER/Line files to shapefile format. On 13 December 2006 I learned that this tool is now freeware, and is available from http://tnatlas.geog.utk.edu/downloadfree.htm. THE INFORMATION BELOW HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH THIS SOFTWARE. My choice of the name "tgr2shp" in the name of the dbfawk file I created was purely descriptive of the process by which the shapefiles were created, and has nothing whatsoever to do with this product, and was chosen before I ever knew of the existence of the TGR2SHP tool. Please visit the manufacturer's site for information concerning that product. On my page you will find only descriptions of how to cobble together shapefiles from TIGER/Line data using free tools from the GDAL distribution.This section is obsolete. The entire set of TIGER/Line data has already been run through ogr2ogr and Xastir-tigerpoly.py and are available in shapefile format at ftp://aprs.tamu.edu/. I'm leaving the description up because it could be useful for folks contemplating other conversions. Furthermore, the file tgr2shp.dbfaawk is now part of the Xastir distribution. The version here is outdated.
I have been able to download recent (2006 Second Edition) TIGER/Line data from The US Census Bureau's TIGER web site and convert them to shapefiles. It's a piece of cake. Download the county files you want. Then unzip each one into its own directory (call it "in_directory"). Then cd to in_directory and run the following command:
ogr2ogr -f "ESRI Shapefile" -t_srs EPSG:4326 foo .This will create a subdirectory of in_directory called "foo" which will contain a number of shapefiles and auxiliary data. The files called "CompleteChain.*" are the ones you want; they are the polylines corresponding to roads and other linear features. Copy these to your xastir maps directory and rename them to the name of the county they represent. Then install tgr2shp.dbfawk in your share/xastir/config directory and reindex maps. Ta da. See above: tgr2shp.dbfawk is now part of the xastir distribution and the version on this web site is no longer being updated.
The option "-t_srs EPSG:4326" is not strictly necessary when used on the TIGER/Line files, but ensures that the output shapefile is projected to WGS84 Lat/Lon if necessary (the reason that it isn't necessary is that the input data is supposed to be in NAD83 Lat/Lon, which is equivalent to WGS84 Lat/Lon for xastir purposes). It will also ensure that the .prj files associated with the output shapes carry the correct projection info you need should you ultimately need to reproject them for a different purpose (e.g. for use in a GIS such as GRASS).
The polylines in CompleteChain are also used as boundaries for polygonal features, but the polygons are NOT represented as shapefile "polygon" features after the ogr2ogr conversion; no amount of dbfawk manipulation can get them to display as filled polygons in xastir. To get area features filled one would have to write a conversion tool that merges information from the PolyChainLink, Polygon, and CompleteChain tables and creates a new shapefile with polygons instead of polylines, and an associated dbf file with polygon attributes.
Some time ago I produced a Python script derived from the "tigerpoly.py" script that comes with gdal. This script is called Xastir_tigerpoly.py, and if you have gdal installed you can use it to generate polygon shapefiles from the same raw TIGER/Line files that you used with ogr2ogr to get polyline files. Look in the "scripts" directory of your CVS checkout version of xastir, or browse the Xastir CVS repository on sourceforge (follow links from the Xastir home page). The file "tgr2shppoly_2006.dbfawk" is also installed with xastir now. The complete set of 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line data has been converted to both arc and polygon shapefiles, and are available from the TAMU FTP site. If you really want to run Xastir_tigerpoly.py yourself, all you really need to do is give it the name of a directory that has a single county's TIGER/Line data unpacked in it and the name of a shapefile to create. If you specify the "-d" option it'll dissolve the common boundaries between small polygons with identical feature names; dissolving these boundaries is key to making prettier maps, but destroys information that was in the original topological description.
Be warned: in some areas the TIGER data is woefully inaccurate. I happen to live in one of them (Bernalillo County, NM). There is some evidence of careless digitization of maps, and there is a strong possibility that the source maps might not have been properly rectified or might have been in the wrong datum. In Bernalillo County these errors were not corrected between the 2000 data and the 2003 data, but was corrected substantially by the 2006 Second Edition data.
According to the Census's own recommendations, TIGER/Line data is not meant for use in navigation --- it is specifically tailored to the needs of the US Census and does not meet accuracy standards of other US mapping data. It is, however, readily available and often useful. Please consult the Census web sites for more information before using this data for anything important.
Unfortunately, the information in the following paragraphs was found to be obsolete once again on 16 July 2007. Bernalillo county no longer provides road shapefiles on their GIS data download site. Only a few polygon shapefiles are available at this time. The only option for getting Bernalillo County road data will now be the Albuquerque GIS page. Fortunately, I have been able to create a suitable new DBFAWK file (actually a trivial modification of the old one) to go with those, so scroll down to the next section if you're looking for Albuquerque/Bernalillo County road data.
Bernalillo County has a fantastic web site where you can download all manner of current GIS data. It is, however, in HARN 1983 New Mexico State Planecoordinates, Central Zone, in US surveyor feet (they come with the .prj filenecessary to define the input coordinate system). You can download 'em,convert them to lat/lon with ogr2ogr (with "ogr2ogr -t_srs EPSG:4326 newfile.shp origfile.shp"), and use 'em in xastir. They are really nice, and are naturally much, much more accurate than the TIGER/Line data for this county.
The Bernalillo County web site has this data in both "ESRI GeoDatabase" and Shapefile formats. You need the shapefiles, as the GeoDatabase deal is unusable in Xastir
I have, so far, only created a dbfawk file for the "RoadCenterlines" layer, the current transportation network. The labels look horrid, of course, because of the way they're displayed in xastir, but the streets are correct and look good. Here's what you do to use them.
ogr2ogr -t_srs EPSG:4326 RoadCenterlines_ll.shp RoadCenterlines.shpThe resulting shapefile RoadCenterlines_ll.shp and its associated .shx and .dbf file will be directly usable in xastir.
One could extend this process to the other shapefiles at the bernco.gov site. At one time I did so for the the airports shapefile, but this is no longer available.
The much older "netcurr" shapefile contained enough information that one could use it to geocode addresses, but the new RoadCenterlines layer does not. The netcurr file on Albuquerque's GIS site does have this information, though, and represents the same road network. See the following section for details.
The good news is that the netcurr files are updated monthly, so they are generally up-to-date with the real roads. The bad news is that when they are updated they are not always regenerated with the same attribute table format, and so the dbfawk file needs to be redone. I discovered on 4 April 2006 that this had happened since I originally made a dbfawk file for them, and that the dbfawk file I had on this site had been outdated for some time. I have regenerated it on that date to reflect the new format of the dbf attributes, but I can't guarantee that today's files from Bernalillo County will match. If you find that it no longer works, please let me know, I'll take a look to see what incompatible change has been made, and update the dbfawk file if I can.
The City of Albuquerque also has an on-line GIS depot. Their site is http://www.cabq.gov/gis/. The data on their site is quite good, although the road network shapefiles are not as nicely set up with attribute tables as the old Bernalillo county shapefiles that contained precisely the same roads. Also, the metadata that go along with their shapefiles leaves a great deal to be desired. In some cases, what is desired is that there BE metadata. Where there is any metadata at all, some files have atttribute columns that are not documented anywhere (for example, no explanation is given of the "FUNCTIONAL" attribute for road data, which is clearly intended to denote what type of road the feature is). Some of the data here is self-explanatory, though, and those files have been quite useful to me.
Note added 30 August:HOWEVER: the "FUNCTIONAL" attribute is described (briefly) in the metadata for netcurr as having come from "MRCOG" which refers to the "Middle Region Council of Governments" --- and the very old version of "netcurr" that I had from the old Bernalillo County web site had a "MRCOG_FUNC" field that seems on cursory glance to relate the integer FUNCTIONAL value to an actually street type in text. In my netcurr.dbfawk file for that old file I actually had extracted that information by hand and put it in comments, and I have happily discovered that my old netcurr_ll.dbfawk file needed only some minor tweaking to get it usable with the new Albuquerque data.
The data on the City of Albuquerque site is all in New Mexico State Plane Coordinate System, Central Zone, just as is the data on the county web site. They will all need conversion to lat/lon to be usable in xastir. This is done with the usual ogr2ogr command:
ogr2ogr -s_srs netcurr.prj -t_srs EPSG:4326 netcurr_ll.shp netcurr.shp
Once you have converted netcurr.shp to netcurr_ll.shp with ogr2ogr, you can just use the dbfawk file I have provided right here. This dbfawk file worked on 30 August 2007, and as long as Albuquerque doesn't change the dbf signature it should work with future versions of the shapefile, too. Using Albuquerque's data for roads should be very useful, and Albuquerque will undoubtedly keep this file updated and current. Update often, and please report to me if you update and find that the dbfawk file no longer works --- that'll mean I have to go back and fix up the dbf signature again.
While you're at it, you could possibly find my dbfawk file for the arroyos data useful, too. This goes along with the "arroyos.zip" shapefile set (once converted to lat/lon, as always), and provides a somewhat useful picture of the arroyo flood-control/irrigation network. I have noticed some glaring omissions, though, especially in the Los Ranchos de Albuquerque area --- the one area where I've actually needed this information in recent months. The data just seems to have a hole there. Fortunately, the census data and road data seems to have a little information to fill in the gaps.
ogr2ogr -s_srs netcurr.prj -t_srs EPSG:4326 netcurr_ll.shp netcurr.shp (to create a lat/lon version instead of NMSPCS) pagc -bnetcurr_ll -smyschema.dbf (to generate the geocoding database) dbfcreate my_addrs -s Name 25 -s Address 25 (create a dbf file for addresses to look up) dbfadd my_addrs "Cuthbert Twillie" "300 Lomas Blvd NW" dbfadd my_addrs "Chauncey Hoffenagel" "1500 Menaul Blvd NE" [...etc....] (to add addresses to look up) pagc -rnetcurr_ll -mmy_addrs (to generate the shapefile to go with the address records)
This shapefile could be imported into xastir quite simply with a crude dbfawk file. Building in the address lookup capability directly into xastir would be a different project for a different day.
I HAVE NOT TRIED THIS WITH ALBUQUERQUE'S NETCURR FILE and it will certainly need to be changed to work --- the field names in the old Bernalillo County file don't match those in the newer Albuqeurque file. But one could study the schema file and tweak it to work properly if one cared enough. I don't care enough at the moment, but it is definitely a worthwhile thing to pursue.
The SDTS DLG transfers are line graphs of features that are on USGS 7.5 minute quadrangle topo maps. If you're lucky, the USGS has put recent SDTS line graphs on their web site. Unfortunately, some of the SDTS files are from previous revisions of topo maps, and you can only get updated data buy buying it in "DLG-3 Optional Format." More on that later.
You'll probably want the sdtsdump utility to view the metadata for these files. Look at the "IDEN" and "XREF" files to be sure what year the thing was last updated and the map datum, respectively. "NAX" means "NAD83" and "NAS" means "NAD27".
I have had more and more trouble finding source code for the sdtsdump and other simple utilities over the years, but last time I did an hour-long google search, I finally found it at ftp://ftp.blm.gov/pub/gis/sdts/dlg/c_code.zip. Snag it now. Five years ago this code was all over the place.
NOTE: the SDTS files all have coordinates in UTM. You need to convert
them to Lat/Lon. If sdtsdump on the XREF file shows "NAS" for the
horizontal datum, you'll also need to do a datum shift. See below.
There's a special place in hell for people who create purely arbitrary "geospatial" data and make it available to others with poor metadata. --- Gerry CreagerI am sure there's already a special place there for me, but I don't need another. On 21 Dec 2004 I went through all of my tar files here and made sure that each had sufficient metadata for them to be used outside of xastir.
All the shapefiles here are in WGS84 Lat/Lon unprojected coordinates. In the case of any files I have converted from some other coordinate system, I've provided a ".prj" file that can be used with OGR to guarantee proper georeferencing. This prj file is in the WKT format, and is unusable by "shpproj" (which expects the .prj file to be nothing more than its own command line arguments) or Global Mapper (which produces a human-readable .prj file). Knowing that all files are in a projection/datum of "lat/lon" and "WGS84" (EPSG number 4326) should be adequate.
The Wilderness areas shapefile contains the original metadata text file that came with the data when I downloaded it from the National Atlas.
For shapefiles derived from USGS data products, please consult the USGS EROS
Data Center for details. All I have done with them is convert to shapefile
format and change the coordinate system to lat/lon.
Yeah, yeah, gimme some free files
I have the following shape files generated from USGS SDTS data
(they're all road data layers from around Albuquerque, New Mexico):
I have two dlg optional road data layers that I purchased directly from USGS along with lots of other data. I used FME Desktop to convert them to shapefiles, and generated a dbfawk file that makes them look just like the SDTS files above. If you buy your own dlg optional files and convert them, you might have to modify the dbfawk file to get the signature and field names right.
The USFS has a geodata clearing house, but the files there are much less useful than the ones Cibola National Forest has on their site. The CNF files have trail, stream and road names and numbers, and very few extraneous lines. This isn't the case for the geodata clearing house files.
Note how different the USGS and USFS versions of trails are. I believe the USFS are more current, and they certainly show more of them.
The labels can get ugly, but where the USGS topo maps don't show a trail at all, the USFS line graphs add the trail *and* its name to your display. I like it a lot, even though the labels are kinda hard to read.
Today, 13 July 2006, I noticed that the Cibola National Forest web site has a new GIS data page. This was updated only in the last week or so, as last week I found that they had removed their older GIS page altogether. I have not yet started using their data, but there does seem to be some especially useful stuff, including US Forest Service modified topo quads in Arc/Info geotiff format (which means missing all the geotiff tags to make them directly useful in xastir, unfortunately). The page in question is on the Cibola National Forest Projects and Plans page. To get to the topo quads, you need to navigate to the US Forest Service's Geodata Clearinghouse. to use the quads, you'll need to add appropriate geotiff tags to contain the coordinate system. The specific coordinate system (projection and datum) information needed is contained in the metadata, so it's not that hard. Most are in UTM with NAD27 datum, so you'd just use gdal_translate with the "-a_srs EPSG:26713" option to note that they're UTM zone 13, NAD27.
As I experiment more with this data (including some of the new vector data) I'll put more up here about it.
cc -o split_shape_by_attribute -L/usr/local/lib -I/usr/local/include split_shape_by_attribute.c -lshpTo run them is about as simple.
split_shape_by_attribute Foo bar Fooble BlarghThis will create a shapefile bar.shp/bar.shx/bar.dbf that has the same dbf structure, but only contains those records for which the field Fooble has the value Blargh
split_shape_by_bbox Foo bar -105 -104 35.5 36.7Note that split_shape_by_bbox does not actually care what coordinate system is used in the shapefile --- all that's necessary is that the bounding box on the command line be in the same system.
ogr2ogr -f "ESRI Shapefile" -where "Foobie='Blargh'" -spat 35.5 -105 36.7 -104 bar Foo.shpwill create a subdirectory bar that contains the features of Foo.shp for which the field Foobie has value Blargh and which lie in the same bounding box as for the split_shape_by_bbox example above. More complex where clauses are allowed, but you should consult with some SQL documentation for syntax. (Note: the order of the single and double quotes in the where clause are important. The entire expression needs to be in double quotes, and the value tested needs to be in single quites. It was wrong on this page until 25 June 06. My apologies to anyone who tried and couldn't get it to work this way.)
The proj-4.4.5 projection library has a more general transform function, and comes with a program called "cs2cs" that you can use to transform almost any coordinate system in any datum to almost any other. The datum shifts work fine for NAD83, WGS84/NAD83 and GGRS87. But you have to have the coordinates in ascii text.
I hacked on cs2cs and merged its function with shpproj, and produced "shpcs2cs". Help yourself to the source. Very little of this code is my own. I started with cs2cs and adapted it to read and write shapefiles instead. It will do proper NAD27 to NAD83 conversions of shapefiles, so if you have an NAD27 UTM shapefile you can produce a WGS84 Lat/Lon file for use in Xastir.
Only the New Mexico State Police District files above needed that conversion from the original I received to the one I'm distributing here, which was done by saying:
shpcs2cs uspbound uspbound_ll83 +proj=utm +zone=13 +datum=NAD27 +to \ +proj=latlong +datum=NAD83
To use ogr2ogr for this purpose you need to have a "Well Known Transformation" (WKT) or EPSG number for the input and output projections. Sometimes you'll luck out and have a .prj file along with your source shapefiles that ogr2ogr will use. So long as the .prj file actually has a valid WKT in it, ogr2ogr will know what projection and datum the source file is in. If the .prj file was created by shpproj, however, it will be useless except for use with shpproj.
You can get the complete list of WKTs and associated EPSG numbers from this zipfile at the geotiff projections list.
The EPSG numbers for NAD27 UTM are 26700+UTMzone (north of the equator only, of course, and only for zones 3 to 22). EPSG numbers for NAD83 UTMs are 26900+UTM zone.
The EPSG number for WGS 84 lat/long is 4326.
Therefore to convert a shapefile that is not in WGS84 Lat/Lon and which has a correct .prj file into a shapefile usable by Xastir, you can do this:
ogr2ogr -f "ESRI Shapefile" -t_srs EPSG:4326 OutputDirectory InputShapefile.shp
This will use the .prj associated with the shapefile and the EPSG number for WGS84 lat/long to handle projection and datum shift in one fell swoop.
If your shapefile doesn't have a correct .prj file you'll need to find metadata that tells you what the source projection and datum are. Once you know that, you can force ogr2ogr to use the appropriate information as the input projection. Say, for example, you want to convert a file you know is in a UTM projection in UTM Zone 13 (North), and is in NAD27. You'd do this to get it usable by Xastir:
ogr2ogr -f "ESRI Shapefile" -s_srs EPSG:26713 -t_srs EPSG:4326 OutputDirectory InputShapefile.shp
Your OutputDirectory will contain the new shapefile in WGS 84 lat/long, with an appropriate .prj file should you ever want to reproject/datum shift it again.
You can also create a new .prj file for an existing shapefile using the data in the "WKT" zip file I mentioned earlier. Just copy the entire line into a .prj file with the same base name as your shapefile, and ogr2ogr will be able to use it without your having to specify it on the command line every time.
An example of a .prj file for NAD27 UTM Zone 13 (North) would be:
PROJCS["NAD27 / UTM zone 13N",GEOGCS["NAD27",DATUM["North_American_Datum_1927",SPHEROID["Clarke 1866",6378206.4,294.978698213901]],PRIMEM["Greenwich",0],UNIT["degree",0.0174532925199433]],PROJECTION["Transverse_Mercator"],PARAMETER["latitude_of_origin",0],PARAMETER["central_meridian",-105],PARAMETER["scale_factor",0.9996],PARAMETER["false_easting",500000],PARAMETER["false_northing",0],UNIT["metre",1]]
Despite the wealth of map data on the UNM RGIS site that is worth downloading, I don't recommend getting USGS topo maps from the UNM site. The few I looked at were significantly older than the ones from the LANL "New Mexico Search and Rescue Resources" site --- for example, on the UNM site the Sedillo, NM map is dated 1978, but at LANL they have one from 1997. Further, while the mrsiddecode utility was able to create a GeoTIFF file out off the MrSID compressed data, it contained NONE of the metadata necessary to get Xastir to use it --- nothing about the projection, nothing about the map datum. The orthoquads, however, are just fine once converted from MrSid to GeoTIFF and contain all projection and datum information.
As I mentioned in the earlier paragraph, some SAR volunteers at Los Alamos
National Laboratory have created a fabulous repository of USGS topo maps of
reasonably recent vintage, covering (almost?) all of New Mexico at three
different map scales (1:24000, 1:100000, 1:250000). The GeoTIFF files at sar.lanl.gov are directly usable in xastir
with no modification. One thing, though, is that you have to dig around a
little to realize where the ".fgd" files are hidden --- xastir uses these to
clip the map collar for seamless tiling of maps. As you click on links you'll
see that the .tif files that contain the maps themselves are in a "data"
directory underneath several other directory levels. The .fgd files are in a
parallel "metadata" directory. That is to say, for the Tijeras, NM quad,
which is map "o35106a3.tif", you'll find it at http://sar.lanl.gov/topo_maps/35106/data/o35106a4.tif,
and the corresponding ".fgd" metadata file is at http://sar.lanl.gov/topo_maps/35106/metadata/o35106a4.fgd.
Put these two files together in a directory that Xastir can find and you'll
get the Tijeras quad with its collar stripped.
A note about USGS topo map naming
The file names for the USGS DRG ("Digital Raster Graphics") files appear at
first blush to be somewhat arcane. But they tell you where the quad is
located. Disecting the Tijeras quad's name, "o35106a4.tif" --- the first
letter, "o", tells that it is a 1:24000 scale map ("f" are 1:100000, "c" are
1:250000). The next two digits tell that the first two digits of the quad's
latitude are "35" degrees, and the next three tell the first three digits of
longitude. The "a" tells which 7.5 minute chunk of latitude between 35 and 36
degrees North the quad occupies, and the "4" tells which 7.5 minute chunk of
longitude between 106 and 107 it occupies. In a 1-degree rectangle, the A1
quad is in the southeast corner, and the H8 quad is in the northwest corner
(for 7.5 minute quads, because there are 8 7.5 minute quads in a degree).
Clear as mud?
Obtaining a list of quad names for a given state
The "where" clause in ogr2ogr can be used on the 24kgrid.shp file from gisdatadepot.comto get you a shapefile
of quads for a given state. Here's how.
ogr2ogr -where 'STATE="NM"' NMQuads.shp 24kgrid.shpThis will give you a shapefile that contains only the quad outlines for New Mexico (all 1985 of them). You can then print out these quad names and their details using the "dbfdump" command from the shapelib distribution:
dbfdump NMQuads.shpYou could also just open the dbf file in a dbf editor (I have just tried it Excel, OpenOffice.org,and StarOffice and they all work) to view the data.
Enjoy. Mail to me if you have comments on this stuff.