"Webliography" LI 804 Bibliography Project

Information in the Workplace: An Annotated Bibliography

Harriet Angulo


Topic and Client

      I have been asked to create an annotated bibliography on Information in 
the Workplace for my classmates attending a hypothetical seminar.  Since 
information undergirds all of business (accounting and marketing are 
information systems), I am taking my cue from the movie Desk Set and 
limiting this topic to aspects of informal communication networks, as 
opposed to the formal managerial structure often shown on organizational 
charts.  Recent advances in technology, such as networked 
communications, are producing revolutionary changes in the way 
businesses operate and, thus, the roles of literally everyone in the 
workplace. This bibliography does not seek to compare and contrast 
electronic communication products like Lotus Notes, nor is it an 
introduction to MIS.  Rather, I wish to explore the web of informal 
interpersonal relationships and unofficial power structures through which 
much organizational information flows. These informal structures, or 
corporate cultures, affect decision making and, ultimately, the way things 
get done in the workplace. Research increasingly shows that an 
understanding of these relationships is vital to initiating change or 
installing workable communication technology in any organization.   

     Our cohort is varied and dynamic.  Although most of us are not business 
majors, our workplace experiences range from volunteerism to careers of 
twenty years' duration.  Some of us have a great deal of technological 
expertise, while others are just becoming comfortable with e-mail.  Our 
interests, career plans, and learning styles also cover a wide range.  We 
will all, however, be taking LI815, or the new curriculum equivalent 
course on library management. Many of us will eventually become agency 
or system managers, but we will all be working with or for different 
kinds of organizations, either designing or implementing information 
systems or providing customized information service to groups or 
individuals within an organization.  An understanding of the social and 
political behaviors of people in organizations will help us to become 
better, more effective information professionals, since it is people in 
various organizational cultures who will be the end users of the services 
we provide.

Purpose and Scope

     The purpose of this bibliography is to provide our class a rich variety 
of materials that they will find enjoyable, thought provoking, informative, 
and useful in their academic and professional lives.  I have tried to make 
listings relevant, timely, authoritative, and reflective of current 
(emergent paradigm) issues in organizational behavior and management.  
Since our class includes visual learners, as well as those who learn 
through fiction, I have included two novels and a video.  A book on body 
language in the workplace would be helpful for class members who showed 
an interest in this topic during LI801.  Because the majority of our class 
is female, and because women and minorities make up an increasing 
proportion of the workforce, several works specifically target the female 
perspective.  Although much of the material focuses on managerial 
communication, many readings explore networking at every organizational 
level.  Unless otherwise noted, readings discuss organizations in general, 
as opposed to specific industries or libraries, and use business case 
histories to illustrate points.  The authors believe their ideas have 
practical applications;  however, this bibliography is not intended to be a 
"how to" list.  

     Readings vary in length from short articles to books.  Aside from the 
video, reading depth ranges from two popular novels to articles in 
scholarly journals.  The cartoon is gratis. Omitted as overly narrow in 
focus are theses and dissertations.  I have instead searched for materials 
that are intellectually intriguing but not overly technical for the lay 
reader.  All works are also current. With the exception of the fiction and 
Shoshana Zuboff's pioneering work, In the Age of the Smart Machine, 
listings date no earlier than 1990.

     With the vast amounts of literature available, this bibliography could 
not, within the given time frame, be entirely comprehensive, much less 
exhaustive.  I have tried to hit the high points, and I believe I've found 
good materials.  I hope that diverse users find this bibliography 
worthwhile and encourage them to add to it as needs and interests dictate.


     For ease of use, I have divided this bibliography into several clusters 
as follows:

          I.  A Literary Introduction

        II.  Power and Politics- Organizational Behavior

       III.  Networking and Communication- From the Water Cooler to the 
Board Room

       IV.  Adding Technology to the Culture


          1. Probably Good- Unavailable by due date

          2. Addenda- Other materials to explore (including an MIS text for 
the interested)

     Within clusters, items are listed alphabetically by author, books first, 
followed by magazine or other articles. In one instance I've listed a book 
first, out of alphabetical order, because  users will gain a greater 
appreciation of other materials in that section by reading that book first.  
I have also noted in the annotations which works might usefully be read 
together, which are of greatest value, and which are quick reads for those 
in a hurry.  Since socio-political behavior is complex, however, readers 
are urged to view the above categories as arbitrary.  A user might, for 
example, wish to compare and contrast The Godfather with Barbarians at 
the Gate or note the interrelationships between power and the use of e-

Search Information

     The following describes my primary search sources, keywords, and 
search techniques. I point out those areas which were most fruitful, as 
well as disappointing time wasters.

I.  Primary Sources

     1.  Databases:

          CARL (Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries)- a group of 
databases, including:

                   Denver Public Library

                    Auraria Library

                    Colorado State University

                    Magazine Index

                    Business Index & ASAP



          First Search: including,


                          Article 1st

          University of Colorado at Boulder (a separate library database 
accessible through a 

                           CARL gateway)

     2.  Book Review Index

     3.  The Internet

               Search engines:  Infoseek- http://www2.infoseek.com/



               Websites: Harvard Business School- http://www.hbs.edu

                               Wired- http://www.hotwired.com

                                International Workplace Studies Program at Cornell- 


     4.  Other:  I browsed Tattered Cover and Barnes & Noble, asked help 
from librarians and business professors accessed through the Deans' 
Offices at UCD, UCBoulder, and the University of Denver.  I also e-mailed 
some sources.  Finally my search included checking through bibliographies 
and references in available sources.

II.  Keywords used in searching: 
 I used the following general terms in keyword searches:Informal 
communication, small group interaction, learning organization, 
psychology-industrial, information politics, networking, work 
anthropology, communication in organizations, communication-
psychological aspects, work groups, and information technology-social 
aspects. All of these words were only somewhat helpful, since my topic is 
interdisciplinary.  I  used the title or author with or without the word 
"review" when searching for book reviews.

III. Search Techniques- listed in order of greatest success:

      1. The Internet:  I found some quasi-tantalizing material here, but my 
greatest hit was Harvard Business School.  This excellent website fully 
describes research areas, lists faculty (including research interests, 
publications, e-mail address, phone number, and picture).  There is also a 
searchable gopher for the HBS Press and Harvard Business Review.  Not 
even the Sloan School at MIT or the School of  Management at Yale can 
match this site for amount of information or ease of use.Wired magazine 
also has back issues on line.  Searching, however, requires logon as  a 
member (membership is free), as I discovered after fruitlessly searching 
past leadarticles for an item I wanted on Xerox PARC.

     2.  Searching bibliographies and references provided my greatest 
source of usefulmaterials, after perusal of HBS works.

     3.  Database searches, especially CARL and Magazine Index, also became 
far more productive after reviewing sources found at Harvard Business 

     4.  Helpful librarians aided my search.  The library at Mountain States 
EmployersCouncil (where Tiina Brown and her boss Mar Scully were most 
helpful) keeps afile of magazine articles on topics including 
communication in management.  Librarians at Denver Public Library were 
also very kind.

     5.  Several business professors pointed me to MIS journals and texts, 
but Charles Beck  of UCDenver is publishing a book on this bibliography 
topic and generously gave  me a draft copy of applicable chapters, the 
table of contents, and references.

     6.  Other- Chatting with classmates and Pam Sandlian, my supervisor 
and a SLIM PhD  candidate, proved reassuring.  Serendipity helped.  I once 
picked up a volume by  mistake and opened it to a good book review.   
Simply browsing the stacks at bookstores and libraries was not helpful. 
There were too many books, and I had no way to evaluate what I wanted.

Annotation Information

Annotations contain the following information:

1. Citation of the document in MLA style.

2. Brief evaluation, describing: a. Information content and why the work 
was chosen, usually because it adds   substantially to understanding of the 
topic.  Where applicable, I suggest  works to be read with the given item.

    b. Authority- In most cases, I have selected works because of renowned 
authorship, currency, reputable publishers, good reviews, publication by 
reputable trade or  business school journal, good references or reviews, or 
any combination of the   above. For collections of articles, I evaluate the 
contributors as well as the editors.

    c. Nature and description of the document.  Unless otherwise noted,  all 
books (except  fiction) have a table of contents and useful index.  Most 
contain bibliographies.  

    d. Where applicable, I cite critical reviews or other evidence of quality, 
such as a  reference in another work, or recommendation by another 
recognized authority.

    e.  ** If you can only read one article or book, read this.

        Bold Italics- Warning! Dense reading ahead.  Graphs, statistics.

(Mckinnon, Sharon, _The Information Mosaic_:  Nohria, Nitin, _Networks 
and Organizations: Structure, Form, and Action_:  Ibarra, Herminia, 
"Personal Networks of Women and Minorities in Management: A Conceptual 
Framework":  Galegher, Jolene, _Intellectual Teamwork: Social and 
Technological Foundations of Cooperative Work_)


I.  A Literary Introduction


Auchincloss, Louis. The Partners. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974. The 
author, a graduate of Groton, Yale, and the University of Virginia Law 
School, is a practicing Wall Street lawyer, who, according to reviewers, 
writes about the "declines and cushioned falls of  good-family New 
Yorkers.  He is a lucid, confident and tidy observer of this small 
community."  Favorably reviewed by, among others, The Atlantic and 
Library Journal, this book tells the ongoing story of a small but 
distinguished New York law firm, as seen by a senior partner.  It is 
included in this bibliography because it describes the network of social 
relationships and unwritten rules through which these firms operate, 
wielding considerable wealth and prestige.  These relationships and 
attitudes infiltrate private as well as workplace lives and create a 
narrowly defined, insular, very close knit society wary of any change or 
intrusion. This is an example of corporate culture at one end of the social 
spectrum. Quoting the blurb:  "Time and change;  these are the forces with 
which the man of morals must strike a bargain in an amoral world.  Every 
day his bargaining position is slightly different.  In this sense the story of 
one profession today becomes timeless." 

Puzo, Mario.  The Godfather.  New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. This 
popular, favorably reviewed best seller tells of networking at the other 
end of the social spectrum.  According to Newsweek, "Puzo proves to be a 
genuine social historian.  The Godfather is fiction, but it is still a valid 
and fascinating portrait of America's most powerful and least understood 
subculture, the Mafia."  Several classmates approved the inclusion of this 
book in a bibliography about informal workplace networks, because it has 
become almost a metaphor for wielding (criminal) power through 
organization. Whatever its illegal intent, the Mafia network is structured 
and patriarchal, though unofficial.  Although the "workplace" may be a 
front, bonding, teamwork, shifting loyalties, and negotiated deals form a 
"corporate" web through which information flows and things get done. The 
Corleone family sees itself as a business that protects its members and 
advances its interests through entrepreneurship.  


**Desk Set . Dir. Walter Lang. With Katharine Hepburn and Spencer Tracy. 
Twentieth Century Fox. 1990. This is a classic Hepburn-Tracy romance, 
about the head of the research department at a TV network and an absent-
minded computer genius who, information workers fear, will replace their 
jobs with a machine.  Although the computer technology reflects the 
original 1957 release date, the video (shown in class) portrays an 
intricate web of unofficial grapevine and water cooler communication.  
Information travels and is interpreted, or misinterpreted, through this 
network faster than through official conduits.  Information sharing helps 
build the relationships and teamwork which enables the workers to do 
their jobs efficiently.

II. Power and Politics- Organizational Behavior


Burrough, Bryan, and John Helyar.  Barbarians at the Gate: The Fall of RJR 
Nabisco.  New York:  Harper & Row, 1990. The authors, both Wall Street 
Journal reporters, won UCLA's Gerald Loeb award for their work on this 
story of the largest takeover ever in America: the $25 billion leveraged 
buyout by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts of RJR Nabisco in December 1988.  
Reviewed favorably in The Economist, "the book also contains enough 
individual examples of greed, egoism, conniving and sheer incompetence to 
stun even more jaundiced observers of the Wall Street madhouse." This 
book is also referenced in "Information Politics" (see below), and is 
included in this bibliography because of its careful description of 
unofficial strategy meetings, power politics, and social relationships that 
determined how financial operations at the highest level were conducted.  
Readers might want to peruse Managing with Power (see below) along with 
this work.

Cohen, Allan R., and David L. Bradford.  Influence Without Authority.  New 
York: John Wiley and Sons, 1990. Allan R. Cohen is Walter H. Carpenter 
Professor of Management at Babson College.  David L. Bradford teaches at 
Stanford University's Graduate School of Business.  Referenced in Linda 
Hill's course note (below), this book provides an in depth discussion of 
how political relationships, often governed by the law of reciprocity, 
work in organizations.  The authors are corporate trainers who take a 
practical approach to their subject, offering advice on how to get things 
done.  This is a readable, useful book aimed at managers.

Nirenberg, John.  The Living Organization: Transforming Teams into 
Workplace Communities. San Diego: Pfeiffer & Company, 1993. John 
Nirenberg, PhD., is an adjunct course facilitator for Interpersonal 
Dynamics at the Stanford University Graduate School of Business and an 
adjunct professor of organizational behavior at San Francisco State 
University, as well as the founder of the Center for Workplace Community.  
This book won praise from, among others, Hazel Henderson, author of 
Paradigms in Progress and one of the required readings for LI803. 
According to the author, "the major contribution of The Living 
Organization is to pull together the various aspects of the new paradigm 
now piercing our organizational consciousness and to construct a system 
that accommodates the many societal and technological changes now 
taking place."  Although it tends to be a "how to" book, this work is listed 
here because it specifically discusses the new paradigm  and social 
change in relation to organizational politics. In addition, the preface 
describes the book's content chapter by chapter, a useful feature for 
readers in a hurry. 

**Pfeffer, Jeffrey. Managing with Power: Politics and Influence in 
Organizations. Boston:  Harvard Business School Press, 1992. This is the 
thoroughly revised and updated version of Power in Organizations, the text 
originally created by the author for use in his course, Power and Politics 
in Organizations, which he developed and taught at Stanford's Graduate 
School of Business, where he is Thomas D. Dee II Professor of 
Organizational Behavior.  Referenced in "Information Politics" (see below), 
this book is thorough and comprehensive, yet readable for the lay person.  
At 345 pages, it would be very useful for a neophyte needing a relatively 
quick but solid conceptual overview of the subject. Readers may want to 
select specific chapters as need or interest dictate.  Representative 
section headings include:  Sources of Power;  Strategies and Tactics for 
Employing Power Effectively;  and, Power Dynamics: How Power is Lost 
and How Organizations Change. The author also includes numerous notes, a 
lengthy bibliography, and an excellent index. 

Schwartz, Peter. The Art of the Long View.  New York: Doubleday, 1991. 
This book is listed in the program bibliography distributed to us in LI801.  
A leading futurist, the author uses a scenario approach to help businesses 
and individuals develop strategic vision.  Of particular interest for this 
bibliography is the chapter, "Information-Hunting and -Gathering," 
especially pages 95-104, which discuss networking and its effects within 
organizations and as a way of designing a business.  Also interesting is a 
quotation on page 81, attributed to Peter Drucker: "The market is really 
about relationships...It's about people coming together, getting to know 
and trust one another."  Although not as comprehensive as Pfeffer's book, 
this work received praise from Stewart Brand, founder of the Whole Earth 
Catalog, and Michael Porter of Harvard Business School.  It might usefully 
be read in conjunction with The Living Organization (above) or The Fifth 
Discipline (below).

Senge, Peter E.  The Fifth Discipline.  New York: Doubleday, 1990. The 
author is Director of the Systems Thinking and Organizational Learning 
Program at MIT's Sloan School of Management. According to Art Kleiner in 
The Whole Earth Review, "organizations that want to learn...must follow 
five disciplines... The fifth and all-embracing discipline, Systems 
Thinking, is a technique for modeling, predicting, and generalizing about 
the behavior of complex systems."  Of special interest for this 
bibliography is Chapter 13, which provides a conceptual framework for 
creating an open environment where learning can take place; however, the 
book as a whole, though not a light read, is worthwhile for those who have 
time.  Senge notes, for example, that systems thinking requires seeing 
interrelationships rather than linear cause-effect chains and seeing 
processes of change rather than snapshots.  The key to seeing reality 
systemically is seeing circles of influence rather than straight lines.  By 
tracing the flows of influence, we can see repeating patterns. 


Bartolome, Fernando. "Nobody Trusts the Boss Completely--Now what?." 
Harvard Business Review  March-April 1989, n.2, pp. 135-142. This article 
is included despite its 1989 publication date because the subject matter, 
as noted below, deals with developing and using networks for information 
transfer.  As stated in the abstract, "catching problems early is important 
to managers, and the best way to find out about developing headaches is to 
have subordinates tell you.  This depends on candor and trust, but both 
have strict natural limits.  Managers must carefully nurture trust and be 
aware of the six areas critical to its development:  communication, 
support, respect, fairness, predictability, and competence.  But managers 
must also watch for telltale signs of trouble.  Managers must develop a 
communication network based on properly using, spreading, and creating 
information." This could usefully be read with "Information Politics" 

Charan, Ram. "How Networks Reshape Organizations-For Results," Harvard 
Business Review September-October 1991, pp.104-115. Ram Charan is a 
Dallas-based management consultant who advises companies on 
implementing global strategies.  The author discusses the concepts 
developed as a result of four years' observation and participation in the 
creation of networks in ten companies. The social architecture of 
networks and the role of information are reviewed. Although these were 
formal networks, designed by managers, they began to make a significant 
difference in organizations when they affected patterns of relationships.  
Over time, the members of the network influenced values and behavior 
both above and below them in the larger organization.

**Davenport, Thomas H., Robert G. Eccles, and Laurence Prusak. 
"Information Politics." Sloan Management Review Fall 1992, pp.53-65. 
Thomas H. Davenport is a partner and director of research at Ernst & 
Young's Center for Information Technology and Strategy in Boston.  Robert 
G. Eccles is professor of business administration at the Harvard Business 
School. Laurence Prusak is a principal, also at the Center for Information 
Technology and Strategy.  Quoting the abstract:  "Information technology 
was supposed to stimulate information flow and eliminate hierarchy.  It 
has had just the opposite effect, argue the authors.  As information has 
become the key organizational 'currency,' it has become too valuable for 
most managers to just give away.  In order to make information-based 
organizations successful, companies need to harness the power of 
politics--that is, allow people to negotiate the use and definition of 
information, just as we negotiate the exchange of other currencies.  The 
authors describe five models of information politics and discuss how 
companies can move from the less effective models, like feudalism and 
technocratic utopianism, and toward the more effective ones, like 
monarchy and federalism." This is a key article which might usefully be 
read in conjunction with Managing with Power (above).

Hequet, Marc. "E-Mail Spins a Web at Work." Training August 1995, vol.32, 
n.8, pp.53-60. The author is associate editor of Training, a standard trade 
journal. This article describes the effects e-mail can have on 
interpersonal and corporate behaviors.  At its best, e-mail enables an 
environment in which teams organize, do a job and dissolve to re-form in 
different incarnations elsewhere in the company.  Problems, however, can 
include privacy issues and abuse, as well as misinterpretation of 
messages.  This is a short readable article, a good choice for the reader 
who wants a quick overview of several e-mail issues.

Hill, Linda A.  Power Dynamics in Organizations.  Harvard Business School.  
9-494-083 (rev. March 22, 1995, 15 pages). Professor Linda Hill prepared 
this note to be used in the second-year MBA elective course Power and 
Influence and generously provided a copy for use in this bibliography. The 
note contains a bibliography and exhibits and is aimed at developing 
students' diagnostic skills in assessing the power dynamics in their 
particular situation.  The document considers a definition of power, why 
political conflict is inevitable in organizations, where power comes from, 
and how the student can make sense of the power dynamics in a given 
organization.  This short overview might usefully be read in conjunction 
with "Information Politics" (above). 

Kleiner, Art. "The Battle for the Soul of Corporate America." Wired 3.08, 
http://www.hotwired.com/wired/3.08/features/reengineering.html Art 
Kleiner is a writer, teacher, and consultant of topics involving culture and 
business.  He works with MIT's Center for Organizational Learning and 
NYU's Interactive Telecommunications Program.  Two major theories, one 
based on the work of W. Edwards Deming, and the other on the work of 
Michael Hammer, are competing for how the corporation should be 
governed in the information age. This article describes both models and 
considers their implications for corporations. "Ultimately, the question 
lingers: What should a large institution be? Specifically, what do we want 
of  corporations?  Demingism promises that the individual worker will 
have more power to answer that question;  Hammerism, that corporations 
will fit much more effectively and responsively into a fast-changing 
world." How organizations align themselves will determine, to a great 
extent, their corporate culture.  

Larson, Erik, and Jonathan King. "The Systemic Distortion of Information:  
An Ongoing Challenge to Management."  Organizational Dynamics Winter 
1996, pp. 49-61. Erik Larson is an associate professor of management at 
the College of Business, Oregon State University.  Jonathan King is a 
professor of business at the University of Washington.  This article 
discusses information distortion in organizations, why it happens, and 
how to guard against it. The study is essentially an examination of the 
dynamics of information politics within organizations.  A bibliography at 
the end of the article references The Fifth Discipline (above). This is a 
short but very informative read.

Zuboff, Shoshana. "The Emperor's New Workplace." Scientific American 
September 1995, pp. 203-204. Shoshana Zuboff is Benjamin and Lillian 
Hertzberg Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business 
School and author of the pioneering work In the Age of the Smart Machine 
(below).This essay succinctly describes the core issue facing business: 
information technology evolves more quickly than behavior. Old paradigm 
industrial hierarchy rested on the premise that complexity could 
constantly be removed from lower level jobs and passed up to the 
management ranks. Exploiting information technology (the informated 
environment) means opening the information base of the organization to 
members at every level, redefining the social contract of the workplace.  

-------"Informate the Enterprise:  An Agenda for the Twenty First 
Century" National Forum Summer 1991, v.71, n.3, pp. 3-7. Zuboff uses  the 
example of a pulp mill to expand upon the ideas discussed in the previous 
article.  She describes the post-hierarchical organization, including 
changed roles and relationships as the front lines become empowered with 
information and intellective skills. The issues are systemic.  It might be 
useful to read this article in conjunction with The Fifth Discipline 

III.  Networking and Communication- From the Water Cooler to the Board 


Beck, Charles E.  Managerial Communication:  The Lifeline of Organizations. 
Upcoming The author, Associate Professor of Communication at the 
University of Colorado at Denver, graciously provided draft copies of 
applicable chapters of this soon to be published book.   Meant to be used as 
a text in a course on communication for business and industry, it is a 
comprehensive, thorough, but readable overview of the subject.  
Representative chapters of interest for this bibliography include:  
Organizational Culture, Models of Communication, Organizations as 
Systems,  and Networks and Lifelines in Organizations. Also included is a 
lengthy (43 page) list of references. Readers will probably want to 
augment this work with other materials;  however, it is a good starting 
point for someone needing an introduction to the topic.

Fast, Julius.  Subtext: Making Body Language Work in the Workplace. New 
York:  Viking, 1991. This update to the bestselling Body Language is 
essentially a "how to" book, included here because several classmates in 
previous classes wanted to discuss the effects of body language in 
communications with library customers. Julius Fast is the guru of this 
genre, who believes that body language is a subtext in all our 
communications.  Chapter headings include:  Supertalk, The Job Interview, 
The Magic Behind the Sale, and, interestingly, Aspects of Power, and 
Subtext and the Global Workplace. Favorably reviewed in Library Journal 
and Working Woman, this book also discusses speech habits and cultural 
issues.  Although not scholarly, it is, nonetheless, an interesting read on 
this aspect of interpersonal communication.

Helgesen, Sally.  The Female Advantage: Women's Ways of Leadership. New 
York: Doubleday, 1990. This book was referenced in both Tom Peters' 
Liberation Management (below), and also in Herminia Ibarra's article, 
"Personal Networks of Women and Minorities in Management A Conceptual 
Framework" (below).  A former contributing editor of Harper's, Helgesen is 
a journalist whose work has appeared in national publications and The 
New York Times. In this book, the author describes her research on the 
strategies and organization theories of four successful women leaders.  
Through what Helgesen calls "diary studies," she explores how women 
leaders make decisions, gather and disperse information, and structure 
their organizations.  These women picture themselves at the center of an 
inclusive spiderweb.  Their workplaces emphasize community and 
information sharing.  Although there are notes at the end, this book 
unfortunately lacks an index. Otherwise, it is a pleasant read.

Hill, Linda A.  Becoming a Manager: Mastery of a New Identity.  Boston: 
Harvard Business School Press, 1992. Linda Hill is Associate Professor of 
Organizational Development/ Human Resource Management at Harvard 
Business School, where one of the courses she teaches is Power and 
Influence.  This book provides insight into the challenges that new 
managers face.  Their most important task, and the most difficult to 
master, is managing relationships with subordinates and others, and 
developing information and resources networks. Hill based her work on the 
experiences of nineteen new managers at two Fortune 500 companies;  
however, this is not a "how to" book.  Instead, the author leads readers 
through a procession of anecdotes and narratives, as she describes the 
young managers' transformation from specialists to generalists. The book 
is aimed at new managers or potential managers and has some 
shortcomings.  Its boundaries are narrow; the final chapter relies on 
traditional tools for managerial development; and it could have given 
greater discussion to the traits, behaviors or situations that led to 
managerial failure. It is, however, an interesting study of the learning 
process. This book was favorably reviewed in the journal Academy of 
Management Executive.

McKinnon, Sharon M. and William J. Bruns, Jr.  The Information Mosaic.  
Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1992. Sharon M. McKinnon is 
Associate Professor of Business Administration at Northeastern 
University and William J. Bruns, Jr. is Professor of Accounting and Control 
at Harvard Business School. This book explores how managers actually 
obtain and use the information they need.  The authors were surprised to 
learn that the managers they interviewed rely on accounting information 
primarily to corroborate impressions of organizational performance.  To 
gather the information they require and to communicate it quickly, 
managers develop their own personal information systems, which rely to 
significant extent on direct observation and interpersonal contacts inside 
and outside their firms.  This book is aimed primarily at accounting and 
MIS professionals and describes, for example, research methodology and 
interview protocols.  Users of this bibliography, however, should be 
interested in chapters describing where managers find information and 
what gives information value to managers.

**Peters, Tom.  Liberation Management. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992 
Tom Peters is the author of Thriving on Chaos and co-author of both In 
Search of Excellence and A Passion for Excellence. This, his latest much-
praised book was selected at a Book of the Month Club main selection.  
Peters is known as the management guru who first enunciated the concept 
of Management by Walking Around, gathering needed information by 
informal means. At over 830 pages, including notes and index, this is not a 
quick read.  Of special interest for this bibliography are the several 
chapters on networking as a way of doing business.  Firms can have a very 
small core staff and yet handle complex projects by networking with 
appropriate resources as necessary.  Work is done in semipermanent 
networks of small project-oriented teams, each one an autonomous, 
entrepreneurial center of opportunity.  Hierarchical management 
structures cannot respond to the speed and flexibility needed for these 
projects.  Peters believes that this kind of economy is liberating both for 
society and for the individual.  Readers might want to consider The Female 
Advantage (above) with this book. The Doonesbury comic is added below 
because is so aptly illustrates some of the above ideas. (Doonesbury, 
_Rocky Mountain News_, May 8, 1996.  Mike is wondering how his 
girlfriend Kim, who has just left his Seattle computer firm, has found 
another job so quickly.  "I don't get it, Kim- How did you get picked up by 
that French Company so quickly?" "Good coders are hot, Mike. Word of the 
firings this morning spread through the campus like a virus.  Everyone 
stopped working.  A systems operator for Chien Fou in Paris noticed the 
lack of company activity on the net.  Within minutes, he e-mailed us all 
contracts" Mike: "Whoa.. Who _thinks_like that?" Kim: "Successful 
companies.  Think Bernie'll be back from Maui?") Nohria, Nitin, and Robert 
G. Eccles, eds.  Networks and Organizations:  Structure, Form, and Action.  
Boston:  Harvard Business School Press, 1992. Both editors are professors 
at Harvard Business School.  This book is a collection of articles by 
professors in the fields of sociology, cultural anthropology, and business.  
All articles contain notes and references. The editors suggest that several 
basic premises underlie a network perspective on organizations.  All 
organizations are in important respects social networks and need to be 
addressed and analyzed as such.  An organization's environment is properly 
seen as a network of other organizations. The actions (attitudes and 
behaviors) of actors in organizations can be best explained in terms of 
their position in networks of relationships.  Networks constrain actions, 
and in turn are shaped by them.  The comparative analysis of organizations 
must take into account their network characteristics. These are scholarly 
articles, many of which contain charts, graphs, and statistical analysis, 
but most are worth the effort.  Readers might want to start with Herminia 
Ibarra's contribution: "Structural Alignments, Individual Strategies, and 
Managerial Action: Elements toward a Network Theory of Getting Things 

Reardon, Kathleen Kelley.  They Don't Get It, Do They?  Boston:  Little, 
Brown and Company, 1995.  Kathleen Reardon is Associate Professor of 
Management and Organization at the University of Southern California.  
This is a handbook on the different perceptions, objectives, statements, 
and body language that open up the chasm between the sexes at work.  
Women don't have to become men, the author believes, but they must learn 
how to respond to the hidden subtext of professional interactions to 
advance their careers.  This book has won favorable comment from Betty 
Friedan and Warren Bennis, a colleague of Reardon's at the University of 
Southern California.  Even though it tends to be a "how to" book, They Don't 
Get It, Do They? is included in this bibliography as an adjunct to the Julius 
Fast book on body language and Helgesen's work on female leadership 


Hirschhorn, Larry, and Thomas Gilmore.  "The New Boundaries of the 
'Boundaryless' Company."  Harvard Business Review  May-June 1992, pp. 
108-115. The authors are principal and vice president, respectively, at the 
Center for Applied Research in Philadelphia.  They discuss in this article 
the emotional boundaries necessary for interpersonal relationships in the 
workplace.  Included are the authority boundary, task boundary, political 
boundary and identity boundary.  Because these boundaries are different 
from the traditional kind, they tend to be invisible to many managers.  
Knowing how to recognize these new boundaries and use them productively 
is the essence of management in the flexible organization where team 
work is of major importance.  The authors suggest managers use their own 
feelings as tools in thinking and managing.  

Ibarra, Herminia M. "Personal Networks of Women and Minorities in 
Management: A Conceptual Framework."  Academy of Management Review 
18, no. 1 (1993), pp. 56-87. Professor of Management at Harvard Business 
School, Herminia Ibarra has done considerable research on how managers 
develop and use informal networks of relationships. Quoting the abstract: 
"The central thesis of this article is that the organizational context in 
which interaction networks are embedded produces unique constraints on 
women and racial minorities, causing their networks to differ from those 
of their white male counterparts in composition and characteristics of 
their relationships with network members.  Organizational context is 
hypothesized to affect personal networks directly, as well as through its 
impact on individuals' strategies for managing constraints.  A theoretical 
perspective that views women and minorities as active agents who make 
strategic choices among structurally limited alternatives is offered." This 
is a scholarly article with extensive references, included here because of 
its research emphasis.

**Krackhardt, David, and Jeffrey R. Hanson.  "Informal Networks:  The 
Company Behind the Chart."  Harvard Business Review July-August 1993, 
pp. 104-111. David Krackhardt is Associate Professor of Organizations and 
Public Policy at the H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and 
Management at Carnegie Mellon University.  Jeffrey R. Hanson is president 
of his own management consulting firm in New York.  According to the 
abstract:  "A formal organizational chart won't reveal which people confer 
on technical matters or discuss office politics over lunch.  Much of the 
real work in any company gets done through an informal organization, with 
complex networks of relationships that cross functions and divisions.  
According to the authors, managers can harness the power in their 
companies by diagramming the advice network, which reveals the people 
to whom others turn to get work done;  the trust network, which uncovers 
who shares delicate information; and the communication network, which 
shows who talks about work-related matters."  This is a fascinating read, 
complete with sample diagrams.

Mishra, Jitendra.  "Managing the Grapevine."  Public Personnel Management  
vol. 19, no 2 (Summer 1990), pp. 213-228. Jitendra Mishra is a professor 
at Weidman College of Business Administration, Grand Valley State 
Colleges. According to the author, nearly all of the information within the 
grapevine is undocumented and is thereby open to change and 
interpretation as it moves through the network.  It often travels faster 
than formal channels. The grapevine is very useful in supplementing 
formal channels, since it provides people with an outlet for their 
imaginations and apprehensions as well.  It also helps satisfy a natural 
desire to know what is really going on.  This articles develops a 
conceptual model of the grapevine, discusses reasons for the grapevine, as 
well as types, roles, and accuracy of information.  The author believes 
that those who are able to understand the power of the grapevine will be 
better prepared to utilize it to provide stability and credibility in the 
work environment.

IV. Adding Technology to the Culture


**Zuboff, Shoshana.  In the Age of the Smart Machine.  New York:  Basic 
Books, Inc., 1988. This is the pioneering study aimed at understanding the 
implications of the massive diffusion of information technology for the 
nature of work, organization, and management.  It has won critical 
acclaim and has become the definitive work on this subject.  Readers in a 
hurry might want to start with Chapter 10, "Panoptic Power and the Social 
Text," which deals with issues of interpersonal communication in a 
computerized organization, followed by the concluding chapter, "Managing 
the Informated Organization."  Zuboff covers the root dilemmas of change 
from old paradigm hierarchies to new paradigm heterarchical 
organizations.  This book should be read first in this section.

Galegher, Jolene, Robert Kraut, and Carmen Egido, eds.  Intellectual 
Teamwork:  Social and Technological Foundations of Cooperative Work.  
Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1990. This is a collection of 
scholarly articles contributed by experts in the areas of electrical 
engineering, social sciences, psychology, and business management.  It is 
referenced in Connections: New Ways of Working in the Networked 
Organization (below).  Since some of the technologies described are 
somewhat exotic, readers will probably want to focus on the first section, 
which deals with basic social processes and group interaction.  Two 
chapters, The Development of Working Relationships, and Mutual 
Knowledge and Communicative Effectiveness are of special interest for 
this bibliography.  All contributor chapters end with references, and most 
contain abstracts.  This book would be particularly worthwhile for those 
who want more in depth material after reading Shared Minds (below). 
Jolene Galegher is a professor at the University of Arizona, Department of 
Management and Policy.

Schrage, Michael.  Shared Minds. New York: Random House, 1990. Michael 
Schrage completed this book while a visiting scholar at MIT's Media Lab.  
It has gained favorable comment from, among others, Tom Peters (above) 
and Mitchell Kapor, founder of Lotus Development Corporation.  According 
to reviewer Howard Rheingold (author of Virtual Communities), "human 
communication in all its emotional volatility, its unpredictable 
creativity, and especially its fuzzy, rich, invisible networks of 
context...constitutes the real information revolution that is just beginning 
to take place.  Schrage starts by considering the hypothesis that the most 
powerful revolutions triggered by communication technologies are 
revolutions in human working relationships.  Shared Minds is about what 
collaborative technologies are likely to mean to us, at best and worst, and 
provides a framework for thinking about the social changes likely to 
erupt, blossom, diffuse, and emerge if computer supported cooperative 
work turns out to be as important as PCs and work processors." This is a 
clear, very readable work on what could be a highly technical subject.

Sproull, Lee and Sara Kiesler.  Connections: New Ways of Working in the 
Networked Organization.  Cambridge:  The MIT Press, 1991. Lee Sproull is 
Professor of Management at Boston University and Sara Kiesler is 
Professor of Social and Decision Sciences at Carnegie Mellon University.  
According to Howard Webber's review in the Sloan Management Review, 
"Lee Sproull and Sara Kiesler examine change with an unusually discerning 
eye and a critical intelligence that tolerates ambiguity and conditions its 
claims.  In their balanced and insightful analysis, the authors urge us to 
understand that technologies may deliberately be used to reinforce a clear 
chain of command, to structure and even block pathways of information 
exchange, to suppress extracurricular use of the system, and to improve 
security through surveillance.  Sproull and Kiesler raise crucial questions 
about our technical and particularly our human strategies as a producing 
society."  This book was referenced in "Information Politics" (above), and 
is worth reading in conjunction with "Working it Out" (below) and Shared 
Minds (above). Although it contains some charts and tables, it is not overly 
technical for the lay reader.


**Brown, John Seely.  "Research that Reinvents the Corporation."  Harvard 
Business Review January-February 1991, pp. 102-111. John Seely Brown 
is a corporate vice president at Xerox and director of the Xerox Palo Alto 
Research Center (PARC).  Research today must do more than simply 
innovate new products.  It must design the new technological and 
organizational "architectures" that make possible a continuously 
innovating company.  In working with its corporate customers, Xerox PARC 
has found that innovation takes place at all levels of the company- not 
just in the research department.  Some of  PARC's most important 
research has been done by anthropologists, who often find that people 
don't follow formal procedures as outlined in company manuals.  Instead, 
they rely on a rich variety of informal practices that aren't in any manual 
but are crucial to getting the job done. In another example, a researcher 
found that the stories tech-reps tell each other around the coffee pot are 
crucial to continuous learning. Rather than impose a new technology on a 
corporate structure, PARC tries to design new uses of technology that 
leverage the incremental innovation coming from within the entire 
company.  This article is a fascinating application of new paradigm 
thinking to technology research.

Davenport, Thomas H. "Saving IT's Soul:  Human-Centered Information 
Management."  Harvard Business Review  March-April 1994, pp. 119-131. 
Thomas H. Davenport is a partner and director of research at Ernst & 
Young's Center for Information Technology and Strategy in Boston and an 
adjunct professor at Boston University's School of Management.  The 
proponents of information technology, notes the author, usually 
concentrate on management information systems and hardware, and ignore 
the human element.  A more logical approach, he argues, would be to start 
with a determination of how people use information, rather than how 
people use machines.  Davenport adds that, in making such a 
determination, it is well to remember that information can take on many 
meanings, that changing an information system will not in itself 
transform a company, and that information is not easily shared.  The 
author discusses corporate examples of human-centered information 
management.  Hallmark, for example, has established "information 
guides"- translators between information users and the IT staff.  This is a 
good follow-up to the John Seely Brown article (above).

Hays, Laurie.  "Working it Out." The Wall Street Journal  pR22 (W)  pR22 
(E), Nov. 14, 1994. Computer networks are enhancing communications at 
some companies, but are also causing problems in communications.  Some 
employees use networks to spy on other workers, or to leave thoughtless 
messages that would be difficult to convey in a more direct manner.  
While networks and groupware help some employees stay in touch with 
coworkers, other staffers dislike the impersonal communications 
represented by computer networks.  Some managers have noticed morale 
problems associated with the lack of socialization workers are 
experiencing because their work with computers isolates them from other 
humans.  Other employees have used computer technology to become more 
efficient at removing confidential company information and bringing it 
with them to new jobs. This article might be read in conjunction with the 
article on e-mail (above) and is a good choice for someone wanting a very 
quick overview of some often unanticipated problems with groupware.

Rheingold, Howard.  "PARC is Back!"  Wired 2.02. 
http://hotwired.com/wired/2.02/features/parc.html Howard Rheingold is 
the author of Virtual Communities. This article has much in common with 
the John Seely Brown piece in Harvard Business Review (above). Rheingold, 
however, describes in detail how one researcher is looking at MUDs as the 
water coolers of the Internet and a way to bring informal, playful 
communication back into organizations.  This researcher envisioned a 
multimedia MOO to include a suite of tools for creating collaborative 
environments quickly.  Users would modify their virtual collaboration 
space, creating a unique arena for each project.  This is a good alternative 
to the Brown article for those who prefer a more computer oriented (as 
opposed to business school) slant.  

Schrage, Michael.  "Groupware Requires Much More Than Bandwidth."  
Business Communications Review Nov. 1995, vol.25, n.11, p.35-39. Client-
server groupware implementations on the enterprise network depend as 
much on organizational culture and politics as on technical expertise, 
argues Schrage.  Groupware products like Lotus Notes restructure 
relationships as readily as they restructure data.  The goal becomes to 
create value through better human interaction, not just better 
information.  Consequently, information technology leaders should stress 
that incentives to share information are needed whenever groupware is 
installed. Schrage believes that issues regarding information access will 
likely lead to intelligent agents that will manage information 
dissemination and interpersonal interactions. The author states that 
managers cannot talk of building a brain or nervous system while glibly 
insisting that the mind isn't their responsibility.  This article is drawn 
from Schrage's latest book, No More Teams: Mastering the Dynamics of 
Creative Collaboration (below).


1. Probably Good- Unavailable by Due Date

Information Technology for Workplace Communication.  Report by the 
International Workplace Studies Program at Cornell, 1995.  The report 
discusses, among other things, how the use of electronic communication 
technologies affects face-to-face communication.

Manning, George, Kent Curtis, and Steve McMillen.  Building Community: the 
Human Side of Work.  Cincinnati: Thomson Executive Press, 1996.

People, Managing Your Most Important Asset.  Boston: Harvard Business 
Review, 1990. This is a collection of articles previously published in HBR, 
including an article by Abraham Zaleznik, "Management Communication and 
the Grapevine."

Sproull, Lee, and Sara Kiesler.  "Computers, Networks and Work." Scientific 
American Sept. 1991 v.265, n.3 pp. 116-124. (Includes related article on 
how people work via electronic mail.  Special Issue: Communications, 
Computers and Networks.)

Schrage, Michael.  No More Teams: Mastering the Dynamics of Creative 
Collaboration.  New York: Doubleday, 1995.

Whetten, David A. and K.S. Cameron.  Developing Management Skills: Gaining 
Power and Influence.  New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1993. 
Referenced in the note by Linda A. Hill (above).

2.  Addenda- Other Materials to Explore

Management Information Systems.  An excellent, comprehensive text, 
recommended by Professor Thompson at the University of Denver Business 
School, is:  Laudon, Kenneth C., and Jane P. Laudon. Management Information 
Systems: A Contemporary Perspective.  New York: Macmillan, 1995.

Office relationships between the sexes- friendships and romance to 
sexual harassment. Consider starting with news coverage of current 
harassment problems at Mitsubishi.

Organizational learning.  Both Chris Argyris and David Garvin of Harvard 
Business School have written extensively in this area.

Chaos theory.  Thriving on Chaos, by Tom Peters, and Chaos: Making a New 
Science, by James Gleick.

Telecommuting and how it affects workplace relationships. Start with 
Cornell's International Workplace Studies   Program.                                                                                   
Work and the family- tensions and overlap.

(_Real Life Adventures_ cartoon from _Rocky Mountain News_, April 15, 
1996, shows two workers holding coffee mugs and chatting.  He: "He did? 
Then What?"  She: "Then she checked the file."  He:  "Wow. Then What?"  
Caption:  It's not the money that keeps us going to work.  It's the fear that 
we might miss something.)