An Annotated Bibliography
It was clear that my topic, intelligence, was much too broad for the time allowed and instructor expectations for my bibliography. I narrowed it to cultural validity of intelligence testing, thereby making this task manageable. I found that most of the literature on my topic was written in the '70s and in the mid '90s, though I have included some works prior to those periods that are worth noting, either for historical value, or because they provide a background to subsequent literature. For instance, I included a 1925 work, Racial Influences in the Mental and Physical Development of Mexican Children, edited by Franklin C. Paschal and Louis R. Sullivan, who were a psychologist and an anthropologist, respectively. The study is not actually about Mexican children, but American children of Mexican, and perhaps other Latino heritage, and concluded that white Mexican-American children scored better on intelligence tests than Mexican-American children of Indian parentage. I do not doubt that these children did score as reported, but the study, like many others of its type, did not consider cultural and other factors that might affect test results. Interesting for its racism, this book must be considered, if not excused, in light of the period in which it was written. I have included it less for scientific value than as an example of the root of the debate. Overall, however, I have concentrated my bibliography on works of more recent authorship. Some later studies did consider environmental factors such as culture, family expectations, education levels of the parents, nutrition, etc., but discarded them, giving rise to the genetic determinist school of thought. One of the most important works on the topic of IQ and race was published in 1969 by Arthur Jensen, and appeared in the Harvard Educational Review. This journal article, How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement? created a huge debate that kept publishers churning out responses for well over a decade, and which has recently been revived by publication of The Bell Curve, by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray. I did not include Jensen's Harvard Educational Review article in this bibliography. Instead, I added his work, Genetics and Education, which contains the full text of the Harvard article, plus Jensen's expanded thoughts on it, as well as a bibliography of responses, both pro and con. Because my classmates are my intended audience for this bibliography, I have looked to works suitable for graduate level students. Some of the included readings are difficult going, but I've excluded many jargon-filled works written for psychology professionals. I believe that both sides of the nature/nurture debate in IQ testing are adequately published for the motivated general reader, as well as professionals in the field. Because my audience is comprised of library students, I also felt it was important to present the issues as fully and as objectively as possible. Therefore, the user will find balance in my choice of works. And though I have a bias on this issue, I have striven to write the annotations with as much objectivity as possible. Selecting from the works in my bibliography will allow the user to make up her own mind about where she stands on this issue. My search for these works has involved a number of sources. My launch point was the Internet. Using a product written by Quarterdeck, called WebCompass, I was able with one query to search Yahoo, Infoseek, Alta Vista, Excite, Open Text, WebCrawler and Lycos. I used the search terms "intelligence tests" and "cultural intelligence," and received a number of good responses, some that were not useful for my purposes, such as information on artificial intelligence, and some that I have chosen not to use because I feel they add no intelligent discourse to the debate, such as that of the white supremacist groups. Many of the good responses were reviews or replies to The Bell Curve, such as the interview of Robert Sternberg by Skeptic Magazine, but also represented were Web pages by or about Howard Gardner and his multiple intelligences. My next stop took me to a medium sized public library (Koelbel). There I found The Bell Curve, numerous reviews and responses to it, and a scattering of journal articles. Resources utilized included an online catalog search and a search of Koelbel's LAN system, which contains periodicals in their collection. I browsed the shelves, but found little that was suitable for my audience. It was obvious that I needed an academic library, so my next several trips were to the Auraria Library, where I did the bulk of my research. A CARL online catalog search led me to the shelves I needed, where I browsed fruitfully. Other resources at Auraria included CARL's UNCOVER system, ERIC CD ROMs, PsychLit CD ROMs, and Auraria's journal index on hard copy. Interestingly, I found much more of use to me in the ERIC system than in PsychLit. I found one of the most useful techniques for locating works was in browsing authors' bibliographies and scanning for other authors' titles within the text of a book. This last method was especially useful for finding works that were opposed by the author, since so many books were attacks of someone else's theory, or a defense of one's own. Once I found an item I wanted to include in the bibliography, I tried to search out reviews. Often, these were not available. I checked Book Review Index and Book Review Digest in all cases, though not always successfully, and found an index for Psychology papers that turned up surprisingly little. Checking the reputation of the author was often very easy. I found, at least with literature published after 1969, that scholars in this field comprise a small community. As I scanned the literature, names came up again and again. Even when attacking someone's work, writers often had good things to say about the reputations of their opponents. I used a variety of search terms to gather information. Searching for "cultural intelligence" worked very well on the Internet, but poorly in the library. The library databases yielded the best results when I searched under "intelligence testing racial" or "intelligence testing gender." The descriptor fields in ERIC gave me additional ideas for search terms, as did the other entries field in CARL. Other search terms I used were: IQ Cultural (Racial, Gender) Abilities Testing Intelligence Testing Ethnic Intelligence Testing Minorities Aptitude Intelligence Tests Intelligence Racial (Ethnic, Gender) I found that one of the most frustrating things about this bibliography was choosing what to include and what to omit for the sake of brevity or clarity. The things I left out were covered in works I included, but my desire would have been to include works that would give the user more choices, even though I believe that more is not always better. But along with the frustrations were a number of rewards. My schedule was somewhat flexible during this project, and I discovered the most productive times to work in the library. For instance, at an academic library, browsing the shelves is okay during weekdays. But getting to the terminals and PCs, and getting help from the reference desk is much better on weekends or late evenings. In the public library, the opposite is true; terminals and reference desk assistance are most available during business hours. Because I was able to tailor my time to the library, I received a great deal of assistance and unlimited computer time, which saved me search time in the long run. And, of course, something I already knew, but was able to reconfirm is that librarians are a helpful group of people and very generous with their time and knowledge.
BibliographyBower, Bruce. "IQ's Evolutionary Breakdown: Intelligence May Have More Facets Than Testers Realize" Science News. 147:14 (April 8, 1995) 220-222. Some evolutionary scientists believe specialized cognitive processes have evolved over hundreds of thousands of years, in contrast with traditional intelligence teaching, which says that one single factor is responsible for all types of cognitive skills (the g factor). This article is useful for those who need an overview of the physiology of intelligence (and the g factor, which appears frequently in works on intelligence testing) and an awareness of differing theories among scientists. Suitable for the general reader. Cordasco, Francesco, ed. The Bilingual-Bicultural Child and the Question of Intelligence. New York: Arno Press, 1978. A collection of journal articles which specifically address intelligence testing and cultural problems specific to bilingual children. It includes many articles on the testing of Spanish-speaking children, a subgroup about whom there is relatively little literature on this topic. The articles speak for themselves, but the editor has included an introduction and bibliography. Suitable for students, researchers and interested lay readers. Cronbach, L.J., and P.J.D. Drenth, eds. Mental Tests and Cultural Adaptation. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton Publishers, 1972. A collection of papers presented at a conference held in Istanbul in 1971 and sponsored by a NATO advisory group. Many of these papers address the problem of administering tests to groups outside the tests' cultural origins. It is a good source for information on international intelligence testing issues. The collection is divided by topics of the conference and includes introduction summary and commentary by the editors, as well as a list of conference participants and subject index. Suitable for students, researchers and lay readers. Deutsch, Martin, Irwin Katz, Arthur R. Jensen, eds. Social Class, Race and Psychological Development. New York: Holt, Rinehard and Winston, Inc., 1968. A collection of multi-discipline scholarly papers which address race and social ills and inequalities. The book contains a variety of views which offer a variety of solutions. This is a good book for developing an awareness of the issues in race and social inequality, but one should be aware that the biological view addresses the genetic determinist view of intelligence. The book is structured from physical issues to psychological to sociological. It contains preface, introduction, name index and subject index. Suitable for college students and motivated general readers. Eckberg, Douglas Lee. Intelligence and Race: The Origins and Dimensions of the IQ Controversy. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1979. The author looks at the historical arguments on the question of intelligence testing and various cultural groups and races. He critiques other writers and their positions. This book is useful for establishing the chronology of the nature vs. nurture debates in intelligence testing and for discovering the names and background of the major players up to 1979. Excellent for comparative and historical value, and the author's bibliography is extensive. In addition to the bibliography, the author has included a list of tables, subject index and foreword by John Garcia, of UCLA's psychology department. This work is suitable for students or scholarly researchers. Eells, Kenneth, Allison Davis, Robert J. Havighurst, Virgil E. Herrick, Ralph W. Tyler. Intelligence and Cultural Differences: A Study of Cultural Learning and Problem-Solving. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951. This contains Eells' doctoral dissertation and input from the other authors. The study was based on children located in one community and defined participants by economic status and the following racial or cultural categories: white, black, foreign born white, other races. The attempt was to assess the importance of various factors as explanations for differences in IQ in children of different cultural backgrounds. The study shows that education of parents, income, interests in reading and books, and nature of housing tend to be related to IQ performance. The text is structured so that part one defines the problems. Part two is a summary of the field study. Part three is a report of the field study. The authors have included appendices, bibliography and index. Flynn, James R. Asian Americans: Achievement Beyond IQ. Hillsdale, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1991. The author looks at research on the high achievement of Asian Americans. The book has a strong environmental bias and author attributes causes to psychological, sociological and historical factors. He says high achievement is due to non-I.Q. factors such as motivation and expectations, and notes that this group has average test scores lower than average white test scores. This book also looks at African American testing, breaking test takers into three groups for analysis: free black heritage, slave heritage and West Indian heritage. A good source of information for the nurture argument. The book is divided by the studies performed, discussion of testing methods, author's hypothesis, and conclusion. Included are appendices, reference list, author index and subject index. This book is intended for a scholarly audience. Furth, Hans G. Piaget and Knowledge: Theoretical Foundations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1969. No discussion of human development is complete without some acknowledgment of the theories of Jean Piaget, and this translation and interpretation has the full approval of Piaget himself. This book discusses the development of operational and biological intelligence, the development of intelligence generally, and its purpose outside and beyond IQ measurements. The foreword was written by Piaget, and the book also contains a preface by the author, bibliography, glossary and subject index. This is a good choice for the student or researcher who wants an overall view of human intelligence and its evolutionary purpose. Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers, 1983. This is Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. It should be read as an alternative to the more narrowly defined view of intelligence captured by IQ testing. The book is divided into three parts: background, theory, and implications and applications. It contains an author preface, notes, and index. The reviews of this book were positive and noted Gardner's lively writing style and the importance of the subject matter. It is appropriate for the general reader and college students. Gottfried, Allen W., ed. Home Environment and Early Cognitive Development. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, Inc., 1984. The editor, a psychology professor at Cal State Fullerton, has assembled studies on the home environment and early cognitive development. The editor says it is an empirical fact that environmental variables in the home correlate with cognitive development. These reports look at those variables in different populations. One issue addressed is whether there is a direct relationship between home environment and cognitive development, or whether the relationship is spuriously due to variables. The book includes a list of contributors, editor preface, references, author index, subject index. This book is not easy reading, but useful for research purposes. Gould, Stephen Jay. The Mismeasure of Man. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1981. This book challenges the theory of biological determinism by demonstrating the "scientific weaknesses and political contexts of determinist arguments." Biological determinism, according to Gould, "...holds that shared behavior norms, and the social and economic differences between human groups - primarily races, classes, and sexes - arise from inherited, inborn distinctions and that society, in this sense, is an accurate reflection of biology." It is a social scientist view of biological determinism. This book is structured historically and includes an introduction, epilogue, bibliography and index. The reviews noted Gould's readable and witty style, though one reviewer zinged Gould because he felt Gould at heart was motivated by his belief in equal treatment for all people, and his desire to discredit the hereditarians. Suitable for general readers, college students and researchers. Grover, Sonja C. The Cognitive Basis of the Intellect: A Response to Jensen's "Bias in Mental Testing." Calgary, Alberta: University of Calgary, 1981. A response to what the author believes are widely used, but flawed, mental tests. This work is a direct response to Jensen's controversial work, and outlines Grover's belief that these tests are used for selection purposes and to block social mobility, especially for blacks. The work is structured to address by turn, false assumptions she believes Jensen has made in his work. In the nature/nurture debate on intelligence levels and race, this author is clearly biased on the nurture side. A good companion piece to Jensen for a more balanced view of the issues. The book is structured to contain an author preface, introduction and author index, and is intended for scholarly audience. Herrnstein, Richard J. and Charles Murray. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. New York: Free Press Paperbacks, 1994. This book should be required reading on the subject of intelligence testing and considerations of race and culture. Herrnstein, who is the chair of the psychology department at Harvard, along with Murray, present a mostly genetic determinist viewpoint. They believe environment does play a role in intelligence levels, but say it is minor. The authors emphasize that IQ scores can talk about averages and social groups, but they say little about individuals due to human complexity. Cognitive ability is substantially heritable - at least 40%, but no more than 80%. They have been criticized by among others, Robert Sternberg, who feels this book misinterprets and ignores much research that supports the environmental argument. Sternberg also feels the book confuses correlation with causation. The Bell Curve is well-structured for different levels of reading. Each chapter begins with a precis of the main ideas. The text is very readable, and included are a list of illustrations, list of tables, preface, note to the reader on text style and structure, notes, an extensive bibliography, and subject index. This book is therefore also useful for the college student or researcher looking for other readings on the topic. Herrnstein, Richard J. and Charles Murray. "Race, Genes and I.Q. - An Apologia" The New Republic. (October 31, 1994) 27-37. The article reiterates information on race and intelligence printed in The Bell Curve. This entire issue of The New Republic is devoted to Herrnstein's and Murray's book and provides a variety of perspectives, though most of the reviews are negative. For the general reader. Jensen, Arthur R. Genetics and Education. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1972. This is a genetic determinist look at intelligence test results. It contains Jensen's famous "Harvard Educational Review" article of 1969, How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement? and was intended as an expansion of that article, as well as a response to the furor it caused. Jensen includes studies of twins raised apart. For an understanding of the topic, and to understand the heated debate Jensen helped to create, this book is a must- read, though it is tough going. It contains a preface, references, a bibliography for the "Harvard Educational Review" piece, including responses to it, pro and con, from the psychology community and the press, a bibliography for this book, author index, subject index. Critics note that the book provides a fuller view of Jensen's thinking, and is important due to the controversy. One reviewer felt there were methodological difficulties in the research that could be explained by environmental factors. The book should be read by anyone seriously interested in the topic because Jensen's article was the basis for so much that has been subsequently written, but it is difficult reading, and not for the mathematically-challenged. Jensen, Arthur R. Straight Talk About Mental Tests. New York: The Free Press, 1981. The author, a psychology professor at Berkeley, has a strong nature bias and is controversial for his belief that heredity is the major factor in an individual's intelligence. He doesn't believe intelligence levels can be modified or raised to any significant degree. Nor does he see culture as a factor in intelligence testing. As noted by reviewers, this is a good general guide on the hereditarian view of intelligence. Included are author preface and subject index. The language is clear and suitable for the general reader. Joseph, Andre. Intelligence, IQ and Race - When, How and Why They Became Associated. San Francisco: R&E Research Associates, Inc., 1977. The Author points out that IQ tests represent only a special kind of measurement instrument: they classify individuals with reference to others. He states that intelligence tests are biased in favor of the particular segment within a larger culture for whom the tests were devised. The book is called a social psychological, historical and black perspective. Joseph suggests separate tests are needed not just for poor blacks, but for middle class blacks. This book is useful for its perspective of a black author and psychology professor. It includes an author preface, introduction, and bibliography. The book is intended for college students and researchers, but would be readable for the interested public. Khalfa, Jean, ed. What is Intelligence? Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1994. A group of essays which define and explore intelligence. It touches on different types of intelligence, such as mathematical and musical, and explores different cultural priorities. Each essay contains a "further readings" list and the editor has included a foreword and subject index. Though not the best source for research (most of the essayists can be better researched through other works), this book is nonetheless a good introduction to the broad meaning of intelligence and a good introduction to some of the essayists. Written for the casual reader. Inspiring. Lawler, James M. IQ, Heritability and Racism. New York: International Publishers, 1978. This Marxist approach is yet another refutation of Jensen and "...does not pretend to substitute for empirical research..." It is a systematic view that raises the issue of defining intelligence too narrowly. It takes a philosophical and historical look at the subject of race and intelligence testing and the nature vs. nurture debate. The book contains an author introduction, chapter end notes, subject index and a foreword by Roger Woock, professor and department chair at the State University of New York, at Buffalo. Reviewers note that this work is readable by lay readers, college students and research scholars. The historical approach was also noted, though one reviewer felt the history and the index were too brief. Still, reviews were generally positive and all noted the straightforward, jargon-free approach. Loehlin, John C., Gardner Lindzey, J. N. Spuhler. Race Differences in Intelligence. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1975. The authors say that the topic is chiefly focused on the question of the relative influences of the genes and the environment on differences in test results. It also discusses the social implications for the findings. This is a biological view by behavioral scientists. Loehlin and Lindzey are from the University of Texas, and Spuhler is from the University of New Mexico. The authors suggest there are genetic differences in IQ between races, but they emphasize that genetic does not mean unchangeable. They conclude that observed differences in test scores are due not only to genetics, but to the bias and inadequacies in the tests themselves. Differences found between the races are minor, especially compared to the range within any given group. The first section of the book looks at background, issues and recent history. The second part reviews the evidence, with conclusions contained in section three. Included are author preface, numerous appendices, bibliography, author index and subject index. Suitable for the researcher, but readable enough for the motivated general reader. Madaus, George F. "A Technological and Historical Consideration of Equity Issues Associated with Proposals to Change the Nation's Testing Policy." Harvard Educational Review. 64.1 (Spring 1994): 76-95. This is a technological and historical view of intelligence testing. It points out that several tests originally well-intentioned have become a means for excluding minority groups from equal educational opportunities. The author says educators tend to embrace new technology without giving thought to the foundations upon which they are based. He suggests a clear definition of purpose for intelligence testing, recruitment of minorities into the field, and an independent monitoring agency. Useful for obtaining one view of technology and intelligence testing from an educator's point of view. Suitable for researchers, college students, the motivated general reader. Paschal, Franklin C., and Louis R. Sullivan. Racial Influences in the Mental and Physical Development of Mexican Children. Baltimore: The Williams and Wilkins Company, 1925. This book should be read as much for its historical value as for its findings. It is notable for what it does not say, as well as what it does. Issues such as nurture and environment are not addressed. Paschal was a psychologist and Sullivan an anthropologist. Among other things, the study finds that Mexican American children of white ancestry test better than Mexican American children of Indian ancestry. Both groups tested below white children not of Mexican ancestry. The authors include a list of references. Intended for scholarly audiences. Sagan, Carl. The Dragons of Eden: Speculations on the Evolution of Human Intelligence. New York: Random House, 1977. The author, an astronomy professor at Cornell, provides a good primer on the triarchal brain theory for the public. It is useful for understanding the nature of human intelligence and is a pleasurable read. It is structured in order of probable evolutionary order and contains an introduction, bibliography, glossary and index. It was positively reviewed, but the focus was on the popular style of writing and Sagan's enthusiastic and infectious speculations. Scarr, Sandra. Race, Social Class, and Individual Differences in IQ Hillsdale, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1981. Though called moderate by one of her critics, this is a clearly "nurture" view of race and intelligence testing. This work is notable for its test subjects, since the author has studied the subject using twins and adoptees, including racially mixed adoptions. Scarr separates the adoptees into those adopted very early in life and those adopted later in childhood. Part one of the book discusses genetics, part two discusses race, and part three looks at social class, with parts four and five consisting of conclusion and commentaries by critics, respectively. The author includes subject index and author index and invited commentary on her text and data by two major "nature" critics, Kamin and Jensen. She did, however, invoke author privilege by having the last word. This book is suitable for the college student or researcher, or the motivated lay reader. Senna, Carl, ed. The Fallacy of IQ. New York: The Third Press, 1973. Discusses cultural bias in intelligence testing and the writings of Jensen. This is a collection of essays which are intended to refute the nature, or genetics, argument for higher average white IQ The essays use a variety of approaches, such as biological, historical, and others. As was noted by reviewers, this is a good source of background for the nurture, or environment, followers of intelligence and culture. Each essay contains end notes and the editor has included a foreword and subject index. Intended for the casual reader or the college student desiring a broad view and list of researchers and works to pursue. Shuey, Audrey M. The Testing of Negro Intelligence. 1958. New York: Social Science Press, 1966. In a study of intelligence testing and race, this book should be read. It contains results of intelligence testing of black children compared to white children over a period of fifty years. The bias is strongly nature, or genetic, and therefore does not endorse factors such as economics, education of parents, nutrition, expectations, etc. The author divides the book by age of test subjects, military background, and includes sections for deviates (e.g., high-scoring blacks) and delinquents. Noted for its unreadability, the book consists largely of tables and charts, separated by explanatory text. This book is difficult going and not for the casual reader. May be useful for the scholarly researcher. Snyderman, Mark and Stanley Rothman. The IQ Controversy, the Media and Public Policy. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, Inc., 1988. The authors surveyed academics in the field of intelligence testing, and found it was generally felt the tests were biased, but not enough to invalidate or discredit IQ tests. The book points out that academics' opinions on the subject are in contrast to the literate public's, and especially minorities, who fear that the tests have been used to keep them down - and the authors find some evidence for this. The brunt of the blame is placed with the media, however, due to their history of inaccurate and misreporting of social science topics, about which they know little. Also blamed was the media's tendency to personalize and create stories. Chapter one contains history and controversies involved in the study of IQ. Chapters two through five outline the controversy over the nature of intelligence and use of tests. Chapters six and seven are analyses of media coverage, and the final chapter contains findings. Included are preface, appendices and index. This book is recommended reading on the subject, since it was positively reviewed and often quoted. For researchers and college students. Sternberg, Robert. Interview with Frank Miele. Skeptic Magazine. June 1995: 72-80. Altadena, CA: Skeptics Society. 1995. Online. Skeptic Society Web Page. Internet. April 22. 1996. A professor at Yale, Sternberg responds in this interview to The Bell Curve. Sternberg is a proponent of the environmental, or nurture, camp. He cites as evidence of the importance of environmental factors his own childhood test scores. Sternberg suffered from test anxiety as a child and performed so poorly on his IQ test that he was asked to take the test a second time with a younger group of students. This time, because he felt confident among the group, he scored quite well. Sternberg criticizes the authors of The Bell Curve because he feels they ignore data that contradicts their argument, and they distort other evidence. This interview is a good counterbalance to Herrnstein's and Murray's book and is suitable for the general reader. Sternberg, Robert J., and Douglas K. Detterman, eds. What is Intelligence? Contemporary Viewpoints on Its Nature and Definition. Norwood, N.J: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1986. Sternberg, a professor at Yale, and Detterman, a professor at Case Western Reserve University, have collected essays that provide a balanced presentation of the nature/nurture, genetics/environment debate on intelligence. This is an excellent tool for broadening the definition of intelligence and defining the controversy. Each chapter contains end notes for further reading, preface by the editors, and subject index. For the general reader. Vernon, Philip E. Intelligence and Cultural Environment. London: Methuen & Co., Ltd., 1969. Vernon says much of the controversy on intelligence testing occurs because of the ambiguous meaning of the term intelligence. Innate racial differences are probably small and certainly unprovable. It is the author's view that environment factors influence development of intellectual abilities. This book contains information on international studies and is especially useful for a European perspective. It addresses non-western cultures, such as Eskimos; British studies; and cross cultural studies. Included are introduction, appendices, bibliography, author index and subject index. Suitable for researchers and college students. Vernon, Philip E. The Abilities and Achievements of Orientals in North America. New York: American Academic Press, Inc., 1982. This books looks primarily at Chinese and Japanese immigration patterns and achievements. The author notes achievements and problems here, in Asia, Canada and Hawaii. Included are relevant research, such as personality studies, language challenges, academic preferences of the subjects and professional employment. A useful tool for studying testing vs. achievement within these Asian cultural groups. The author divides the work by subgroup and then into history and immigration destinations, problems and challenges of the group and personality studies. Vernon includes author preface, appendices, reference list, author index and subject index. This book is not suitable for the casual reader, but is useful for college and research audiences. Villanueva, Victor, Jr. Bootstraps: From an American Academic of Color. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 1993. The author calls this report an autobiography with political, theoretical, pedagogical considerations. It includes ethnographic research, solutions tried in the classroom, and speculations on the differences between immigrants and minorities, the class system, and language. It makes reference to the 1969 Jensen article from Harvard Educational review. This is a useful work for understanding why some people believe intelligence tests are culturally-bound. Suitable for the college student or general reader. Wechsler, David. The Measurement and Appraisal of Adult Intelligence. 1939. Baltimore: The Williams and Wilkins Company, 1958. Any discussion of intelligence testing must include David Wechsler, the author of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS) adult intelligence test. Wechsler was Chief Psychologist at Bellevue, as well as a professor at New York University. This work explains the authors research, defines intelligence, and even includes a section on gender differences in IQ testing. In it's review, the New York Times notes that the author believes he has proved "human variability" is limited compared to other phenomena in nature. Part one of the book defines and discusses the nature of intelligence. Part two contains the intelligence tests and the author's research results. Part three gives diagnostic and practical applications for the information. Included are author preface, appendices, bibliography, author index and subject index. This book is not suitable for the casual reader, but is useful for college and research purposes. Werf, Greetje van der. "Differences in School and Instruction Characteristics Between Highly, Average, and Low Effective Schools." International Congress for School Effectiveness and Improvement. Norrkoping, Sweden. January 1993. This paper discusses a study entitled The Dutch Educational Opportunity Program, which was begun in 1988. The purpose was to improve educational opportunities for economically disadvantaged children. Initially, this study found no improvement in results when compared to the representative reference group. However, after further analyses and taking into account differences among the children of ethnicity and intelligence levels, differences were found in effectiveness of the schools themselves. This is useful information for consideration of the definition of intelligence and the importance of cultural and environmental factors in intelligence testing. For researchers and college students. Whimbey, Arthur, with Linda Shaw Whimbey. Intelligence Can Be Taught. New York: E.P. Dutton & Company, Inc., 1975. Whimbey, a professor of psychology at Dillard University, in New Orleans, looks at the nature of intelligence and defines what intelligence tests measure. He discusses whether intelligence is a learned skill (we know from the title he believes it is) and whether it is inborn or environmental. Whimbey's position is that intelligence is not totally genetically determined, but can be improved with training. On ethnicity and race, the author says middle class groups vary little in intelligence testing. He looks at the differences as economic issues and blames orientation and cognitive experience as reasons for the variance. This book includes examples of IQ test questions and data from Binet and Wechsler studies. He cites the work of others, including the genetics determinists such as Jensen and Jencks. Included are appendices, bibliography and subject index. Reviews were largely positive and noted the inclusion of research by the author and others. The New York Times says that Whimbey's view, which rejects the heredity view of intelligence, must be assiduously pursued, since if offers hope to parents and teachers, while the heredity view offers only despair. The language is clear and concise, making it suitable for the reasonably educated reader. It would be useful for research purposes, but is not technically difficult. Works You Might Also Wish to Consider: (I didn't review these personally.) Guttman, Louis. "The Irrelevance of Factor Analysis for the Study of Group Differences." Multivariate Behavioral Research. 27:2 (1992) 175-204. Abstract: "Argues that Jensen's article contains an inaccurate and misleading account of Spearman's work and distorts the basic concepts of factor analysis. The target article has failed in all its main objectives; its major failing is a result of the irrelevance of factor analysis to the study of group differences. (SLD)" Harper, E. Jean. "Culture, Style, and Equity in Education: An Interview with Asa Hilliard." Midwestern Educational Researcher. 5:2 (Spring 1992) 23-25. ERIC 1992-12/94. CD-ROM. SilverPlatter 3.11. Abstract: "Asa Hilliard, an African-American educator, stresses the following points: (1) the African-American cultural style tends to be more improvised, wholistic, and person-oriented than the European style; (2) teachers can be more democratic and equitable by recognizing cultural differences; (3) intelligence tests tend to hurt African Americans; and (4) teacher competency tests are unrelated to classroom performance. (KS)" "Is 'Gender Gap' Narrowing?" Science. 253:5023 (Aug. 30, 1991) 959-60. ERIC 1992-12/94. CD-ROM. SilverPlatter 3.11. Abstract: "The question as to whether males and females have different kinds of intellectual abilities is addressed. The evidence that there are some differences in cognition and perception between men and women is reviewed. (KR)" Mouat, Thomas W., IV. "A Response to Rushton's 'Race Differences in Behaviour.'" Journal of Educational Thought - Revue de la Pensee Educative. 26:3. (Dec. 1992) 230-57. ERIC 1992-12/94. CD-ROM. SilverPlatter 3.11. Abstract: "Refutes Rushton's claims regarding heritable race differences in intelligence, criminal capacity, brain weight, and his racial ordering of human evolution. Cites major studies with opposite results. Analyses the causal chain governing explicit theory and unstated assumptions; documents inadequate, spurious, and misapplied data sources; and demonstrates Rushton's scientifically unacceptable methodology. (DM)" Okagaki, Lynn and Robert J. Sternberg. "Parental Beliefs and Children's School Performance." Child Development. 64:1 (Feb. 1993) 36-56. ERIC 1992-12/94. CD-ROM. SilverPlatter 3.11. Abstract: "Assessed the attitudes of 359 immigrant and native-born American parents of kindergarten through second-grade children about child rearing, education, and intelligence and their children's school performance. Found that parents' beliefs about conformity were negatively related to their children's school performance. (MDM)" Interesting (And Mostly Related) Internet Web Pages http://www.the- bac.edu/wake/intellig/ This page is an outline of a new book: Gardner, Howard, Mindy L. Kornhaber and Warren K. Wake. Intelligence: Multiple Perspectives. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace & Co., 1996. Full text of the book's preface is online, and a list of items addressed in each chapter. Also included are bios of the authors. http://www.apa.org/journa ls/bell.html This is part of the American Psychological Association's Web Page, and contains two reviews of The Bell Curve. One is positive and one negative. Reviewers are Thomas J. Bouchard, of the University of Minnesota, and Donald D. Dorfman, of the University of Iowa. http://tiac.net/u sers/poorrich/intelligence.html A short essay on the nature of intelligence by Isaac Asimov. This is part of a site that contains a variety of resources for the learning disabled. http://www.tiac.net/users/poorrich/intelligence.html.miracle. com/mensa/join-test.html Always suspected you were really a genius? This site is Mensa's page, and if you're curious about your own IQ, you can take their prequalifying test online, or Mensa will mail it out to you.