Introduction: Intellectual Freedom, Libraries and the Schools The cultivation of a climate of critical thinking and free expression is one of the most cherished hallmarks of the modern democratic society. Considered by many to be an essential requisite for all other freedoms, intellectual freedom is understood to be the right of all individuals to formulate and articulate their own understanding of the character of the world and of society, and to have unrestricted access to the information necessary to develop this understanding. This principle, while easy to affirm and to articulate, becomes very difficult to define in practice. Free expression can easily turn into license, while adjudicating the boundaries of what constitutes sufficient access runs immediately into questions of privacy, state security, and developmental propriety. So even though enshrined in the American system by the affirmation of the right of free speech articulated in the First Amendment, the principle of intellectual freedom and its antithesis, censorship, have proven to be lightning rods for some of the more virulent values conflicts in American society today. Librarians find themselves caught up in the debates over intellectual freedom because of their role in materials selection and because they act as guardians of the record of public knowledge. The library functions as a unique public forum that has the obligation to make information accessible to everyone, regardless of viewpoint. The problem is that due to the breadth of the mandate, libraries also make available information that has the potential to offend or that can be considered dangerous to public safety. As a consequence librarians are held responsible for providing access to these "questionable" materials and can become liable when the materials are challenged. The issue of censorship and intellectual freedom is a crucial one for anyone in the library field and it is important for librarians to understand the dynamics of the conflicts so that they can act informedly and responsibly in situations that are frequently charged with high emotion and confrontational or polemical energy. The definition of intellectual freedom takes on a special significance when it is considered within the context of the American public school system. As one of the primary mechanisms for socializing children and for forging a sense of cultural unity the public schools have recently become a battleground in the struggle to define the core values of American society. On the one side is the tradition that gives to teachers and librarians the responsibility to inculcate in the students (to the best of their ability) an understanding of the complexity of humans systems and human interactions and to provide an environment in which critical thinking and effective problem solving skills (both moral and practical) can be effectively developed. On the other side are those who feel that parents and society at large have a legitimate right to be assured that the content of what is taught in the schools or of what is available in school libraries does not abrogate in any substantive way their personal values or community mores. In the abstract these two positions are not necessarily opposed to each other, but in the current context the vision of the "good society" held by proponents of each side is a radically different one and the tension between these two needs at times has verged on a battle for control of the schools. The issue of intellectual freedom in the schools has taken on a critical importance since it is here that society's practical response to this fundamental value conflict is being worked out. As these readings make clear, the process is an on-going one and the forces on both sides can marshal considerable resources. One hopes that in the struggle to make a principle victorious that the inner spirit of that principle does not become distorted. If the affirmation of intellectual freedom is a valid posture, it can only truly triumph in a context of open dialog. Similarly, the attempt to impose a vision of community mores on the schools that does not reflect a critically examined consensus undermines, in the long run, the very values that are purportedly being affirmed. The real challenge is to keep the forum open and trust that an informed dialog will result in a consensus that encourages critical thinking while providing the foundation for moral thinking and action that is so essential for the common good. Scope of the Bibliography The following bibliography has been collected in an attempt to provide a concise guide to the most recent literature discussing the issue of intellectual freedom. Due to the breadth of the topic, it was decided to focus on works investigating intellectual freedom as a general principle and on works examining the impact of censorship controversies on schools and libraries. Left out of this selection were books dealing with the related issues of freedom of the press, the problem of pornography, censorship issues in film and the broadcast media, and the controversies surrounding funding for the arts. Also not covered is the growing problem of defining the boundaries of freedom of expression on the internet and in other electronic media. Each of these areas of controversy, while related to the works discussed below, possesses its own (voluminous) literature and deserves to be treated in a separate discussion. Furthermore, since the literature prior to 1989 has been surveyed in several substantial bibliographies--e.g. Frank Hoffman, Intellectual Freedom and Censorship: An Annotated Bibliography, (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1989); and James R. Bennett, Control of Information in the United States: An Annotated Bibliography, (Westport, Connecticut: Meckler, 1987)-- it was decided to focus on works produced since that date in the hopes that a survey of the most recent literature would provide a useful addendum to the prior surveys. Selection of works was made using standard finding aids in the University of New Mexico's Zimmerman Library, and in the Albuquerque Public Library. The intent was to locate scholarly and popular sources that would be readily available in most locales. Book reviews were located using the "Expanded Academic Index" accessible through the "Libros" interface of Zimmerman Library.
Intellectual Freedom and Censorship An Annotated Bibliography1. Collections of Readings/Overviews, aimed at a popular audience. George Beahm and Mary Beahm, editors. War of Words: The Censorship Debate, (Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel, 1993). 430 pages, bibliography. War of Words is filled with a wealth of source material covering the issue of censorship in American society. The editors have collected essays, interviews and media reports on a broad range of topics, including: challenges to books, controversies over art, censorship challenges in the schools, issues over depictions of sexuality and pornography. While the intent of the editors is clearly to promote an understanding of the dangers inherent in the growing number of challenges to the free circulation of of ideas, they have also done an excellent job of providing a range of voices from a number of different perspectives. The book contains numerous essays and statements by conservative journalists and activists with the result that the language used on both sides of the debate is open for inspection. The varied character of the content of this book makes it an excellent resource for obtaining a first hand impression of the diversity of opinions that the question of intellectual freedom raises. The book's bibliography is a good guide to some of the most pertinent and recent literature on the subject. Nat Hentoff. Free Speech for Me--But not for Thee: How the American Left and Right Relentlessly Censor Each Other. (New York: Harper Collins, 1992). In this challenging and provocative book, Nat Hentoff explores the intricate moral dilemmas raised by the advocacy of intellectual freedom. A journalist who contributes frequently to the Village voice, the Washington Post and the New Yorker, Hentoff marshals an impressive number of episodes that illustrate the persistence of efforts to limit and control what people in this country read and think. He treats the major themes that provoke restrictions on freedom of expression: racism, sexual stereotyping, obscenity and pornography, national security, and issues regarding freedom of expression in public schools. Written mostly in the first person, the book has a conversational tone that make the ideas expressed very accessible. Some readers may encounter difficulties with Hentoff's point of view, however. His main concern seems to be to ensure that the principles of intellectual freedom are applied consistently regardless of the content of the ideas expressed. As such he spends most of the space of the book (390 pages) discussing censorship efforts that originated from people with liberal leanings or ideologies. His point being that censorship is not limited to specific political, religious, or geographical groups but crops up in all facets of modern life. He speaks with the voice of the curmudgeon: observant of the deeper implications of people's actions, sure of his own interpretation, and cranky to all. While opinionated, he raises essential questions in this debate and articulates a point of view that needs to be heard. This book is a goldmine of anecdotal information about the on-going conflict over censorship in the United States and is a good choice for obtaining a complex overview of the subject. Reviews: Chris Petrakos, The Quill, May, 1994, 83:4, p. 42. Positive review, praises Hentoff's emphasis on promoting dialog as the best solution to the values conflicts underlying the censorship issue. Nicholas J. Karolides, Lee Burress, John M. Kean, editors. Censored Books: Critical Viewpoints. (Metuchen, N.J. : Scarecrow Press, 1993). This collection of essays is intended to "stir the reader to take a deeper look at the question of intellectual freedom" and is motivated by the need to keep the "constitutional guarantees of separation of church and state, freedom of speech and of the press, [and of] the right to congregate to exchange ideas" alive in each generation. In its first section, the book presents essays by novelists discussing their personal experiences with and interpretations of censorship-- touching on the problem of pressures to self-censor as well as the problem of overt suppression. The second section contains essays defending the literary value and the social and ethical import of specific challenged books. Among the books discussed are: Huckleberry Finn, Brave New World, Catch-22, The Color Purple, Death of a Salesman and The Grapes of Wrath. The book has the virtue of bringing together a varied spectrum of voices focused on the importance of specific stories that in the event of a successful censorship challenge would become inaccessible. Moreover, the structure of the book is delightfully consistent with the principles of intellectual freedom in that it does not present a univocal declamation of moral rectitude but provides a multi-voiced discussion in which a valuing of the spirit of intellectual inquiry remains the paramount message. The book also has significant practical value in that the essays can help to define a rationale for defending books that have been challenged. Robert Emmet Long, editor. Censorship. (New York: H.W. Wilson, 1990). The Reference Shelf v. 62 no 3. The book is an anthology of reprints of articles organized around the themes of Censorship in Great Britain, pornography, censorship of books in libraries and schools, and censorship of the fine arts. It is a small paperback and condenses an overview of a complex topic into an accessible and affordable volume. While not the best selection of its kind, it is a good "reader" providing accessible introductory material for classroom discussion. William Noble Bookbanning in America: Who Bans Books? -- and Why. (Middlebury: Paul S. Eriksson, 1990). 349 pages, index, bibliography. In this anecdotal and frequently gripping book, William Noble paints a vivid portrait of the personalities, issues and dynamics involved in the process of challenging and defending access to books. While never articulating a systematic argument, his narratives describing many of the most notable efforts to ban books over the course of American history, translate into a ringing defense of the necessity and importance of maintaining the principle of intellectual freedom as a vibrant and dynamic aspect of our political and cultural life. Noble's style is always engaging and he has a keen ability to present historical conflicts over books as episodes filled with drama and moral import. But while this novelistic quality is perhaps the book's greatest strength, it also points to its weakness: in his quest for the story, the personalities Noble portrays frequently are characterized in terms of easily recognizable literary characters: the reader always knows who are the "good guys" and the "bad guys." This technique tends to over-simplify complex situations and glosses over some of the ethical and moral difficulties raised by the issue of censorship. Given this caveat, this book is a "good read" and provides an accessible introduction to the issue of bookbanning to readers of all levels. Reviews: Joseph D. McInerney, The American Biology Teacher, November- December 1994, 56:8, pp. 502-3. Ann E. Weiss Who's To Know: Information, the Media, and Public Awareness, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990). 182 pages, index, bibliography. Who's to Know is a concise and clear exposition of the main issues surrounding intellectual freedom, censorship and the impact of the media on the shape and character of public information. Weiss's text is a simple and direct presentation of a complex topic aimed at young readers (high school age). But her coverage of the issues is nuanced and challenging even for an adult audience. She incorporates considerable historical material into her description and does an excellent job of elucidating the impact of the attitudes of the past on the patterns of the present. This book is recommended reading for any young person exploring the limits placed on freedom of expression in American society and provides a concise overview of this issue for adult readers as well. The one disappointment of the book is its mediocre bibliography, which is more of a "sources used" style than a well-organized annotated list of sources for additional information. Reviews: Frances Bradburn, Wilson Library Bulletin, November 1990, 65:3, p. 155. Positive review. 2. Resource Books Herbert N. Foerstel Banned in the U.S.A.: A Reference Guide to Book Censorship in Schools and Public Libraries, (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1994). 231 pages, index, bibliography. Banned in the U.S.A. is one of the most comprehensive compendiums of material illustrating the increasing number and severity of challenges to the free use and circulation of books in American schools. While other books do a good job of summarizing the challenges to intellectual freedom in all of its complexity, Banned in the U.S.A by focusing on the issue of bookbanning provides a concise overview of this fundamental challenge to the cultivation of the concept of freedom of expression in the schools. Foerstel surveys the major bookbanning incidents that have shaped the character of the current debate and examines the key legal cases that form the legal context within which the debate gets played out. He also includes an excellent chapter "Voices of Banned Authors," in which he profiles several authors of the most frequently challenged books, allows them to describe what their intentions are for their writing as well as their response to their work being challenged, and conveys the human side of the censorship controversies. In the final chapter Foerstel profiles over two dozen books that have received frequent challenges. He provides an abstract of the book and describes the reasons for it being challenged. This section in and of itself is a valuable resource since it provides a quick overview of the character of the book and of the nature of its challenge--illuminating something of the climate that envelopes a book once its been challenged. Overall, Banned in the U.S.A. is an excellent resource that provides insight into several different dimensions of the bookbanning controversy. Reviews: Bonnie Ericson, "The Censorship Crisis," English Journal, 85:1, January 1996, pp. 79-81. Positive review. Singles out the sections focusing on interviews with authors and the descriptions of challenged books as the most important contribution of the book. The review also discusses Censorship: A Threat to Reading, Learning, and Thinking, and What Johnny Shouldn't Read. Jonathan Green The Encyclopedia of Censorship, (New York: Facts on File, 1990). 388 pages, index, bibliography As the title implies, this is a compendium of information on the topic of censorship arranged in a standard alphabetical format. While an interesting idea, the volume falls short on a number of counts and has only a limited use. The introduction provides a concise essay on the meaning, scope and significance of censorship and makes the point of the universality of the phenomenon--even in the west where it has taken on a more covert and less official form. While a random perusal of various articles in the volume suggests that the information in the Encyclopedia is well written and useful, I was unable to locate several other topics at all. Such subjects as Huckleberry Finn, Robert Mapplethorpe, or Kurt Vonnegut are not covered, and a search for "Pico" in the index failed to produce a cross reference to "Board of Education v. Pico (1982)--that article was found in the process of browsing. In general it appears that the encyclopedia is strongest on subjects possessed of an historical content, but that it is not a good source for information on more recent or specific cases. Reviews: James Rettig, Wilson Library Bulletin, March 1990, 64:7, pp. 126-7. Points to the lack of information on anti-censorship groups (e.g. American Library Association and Freedom to Read Foundation); calls the volume a "flawed first effort," but a "useful reference work." William A. Donovan, Library Journal, December 1989, 114:20, pp. 106- 7. Notes some lacunae in the articles, but generally positive about the volume. Information Freedom and Censorship: World Report 1991/Article 19 (Chicago: American Library Association, 1991). 471 pages, index, bibliography. Given its international scope, Information Freedom and Censorship is somewhat tangential to the subject of this bibliography. But this volume illuminates, in a way no other work in this list can, the global context of the censorship issue. Sandwiched between articles on Paraguay and Uruguay the situation in the United States is graphically shown to be only one aspect of a much larger--and frequently more serious--pattern of abuse. Article 19, which takes its name from the nineteenth article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, is an organization dedicated to promoting freedom of expression and to combatting censorship worldwide. This volume provides a concise reference for information conditions all over the globe. While comprehensive in its coverage, the individual articles are necessarily brief and do not provide in depth information. Also, some of the information has already become dated. Nevertheless, for a quick overview of the key censorship issues facing any country today, this book would be a good starting point. Reviews: John Swan, Library Journal, October 1991, 116:1, p. 146. Positive review; says the book belongs in every library along with the Amnesty International Report and the State Department Country Report. Newsletter on Intellectual Freedom, (Chicago: International Freedom Committee of the American Library Association,1952- ) The Newsletter is unquestionably one of the most important sources for timely information regarding intellectual freedom and the issue of censorship. Published by the Committee on Intellectual Freedom of the American Library Association, the Newsletter tracks lawsuits, media reports, and issues and events that have an impact on the interpretation of the First Amendment. As the official mouthpiece of the ALA Committee on Intellectual Freedom, it publishes the association's statements of policy regarding censorship issues. In addition to its analysis of these issues, it also publishes a bibliography in each issue listing the most recent works discussing censorship. This is an essential resource for anyone needing information about intellectual freedom or censorship. John S. Simmons, editor. Censorship: A Threat to Reading, Learning, and Thinking, (Newark, Delaware : International Reading Association, 1994). 279 pages. Note: I was unable to physically locate a copy of this book, but the following information is summarized from Ericson's "The Censorship Crisis," in English Journal, 85:1, January 1996, pp. 79-81. In Censorship, Simmons brings together a fertile and useful selection of material covering the censorship issue. The book's three sections discuss the general question of censorship, survey several book challenges, and provide a selection of practical information. Articulating an idea that is implicit in much of the literature covered in this bibliography but that has not received systematic attention, James Anthony Whitson defines the conflict over books as not so much a debate over content as a debate over methodology: the groups challenging the books tend to "limit the notion of literacy to noncritical literacy." Typically they insist on the need to teach basic mechanical skills (reading and writing) but eschew techniques designed to develop more critical skills. Since the concept of critical exchange is so essential to the notion of intellectual freedom, this selection provides an important contribution to the literature on censorship. 3. Analytical Studies Lee Burress Battle of the Books: Literary Censorship in the Public Schools, 1950-1985. (Methuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1989). 214 pages. Note: I was unable to physically view a copy of this book, but it was frequently cited in the other literature I consulted. The following information is based on a review by Norman Stevens in the Wilson Library Bulletin, October 1989. In this book Burress examines the increase in censorship attempts in the public schools. He recounts a specific challenge incident in Montello Wisconsin and then goes on to recount the results of various studies he has carried out--including a "lengthy 1982 national survey." Burress' conclusion as recounted by Stevens is that "if we are to risk the dangers of censorship, we should be sure that evidence is shown to us that it is necessary." An important insight, but one suspects that the evidence Burress presents is of more significance than his specific summation of its significance. If this book carries the same spirit as Censored Books: Critical Viewpoints, which was co-edited by Burress, Battle of the Books will be an important source for everyone concerned with the problem of book censorship. Joan DelFattore What Johnny Shouldn't Read: Textbook Censorship in America, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992). 209 pages, Index, sources listed for each chapter. In this complex and important book Joan DelFattore examines the problem of textbook censorship as it was manifested in two trials in the 1980s: Mozert v. Hawkins County Public Schools, and Smith v. Board of School Commissioners of Mobile County. Both cases were originated by conservative Christian parents in objection to reading material their children encountered in school. The Mozert trial attempted to establish the right for all students to receive individual instruction in compliance with their religious beliefs. The Smith trial attempted to demonstrate that secular humanism is a religion and so needs to be purged from textbooks to avoid the state's abrogating the establishment clause of the First Amendment. While the two cases resulted in seemingly contradictory conclusions, DelFattore suggests that they affirmed the principle that, except in very extreme circumstances, the effective locus of power over what books are used in the classroom is the schoolboard. DelFattore then goes on to analyze the process by which textbooks are chosen, challenged and altered in California and Texas, the two states that, because of their size, effectively determine the content of textbooks nationwide. She concludes that state boards of education are very vulnerable to political lobbying, and that as a consequence a small handful of vocal advocates have achieved a disproportionate influence over the content of textbooks. By and large these protesters advocate a fundamentalist Christian agenda, although some protests from a liberal perspective have been successful as well. She also points out that because of the economics of the process, publishers have responded to the controversies over teaching material by a process of self-censorship in which they attempt to avoid challenges by deleting or watering down controversial material--thus accentuating the influence of the protesters. This is a highly detailed, effective and (to my mind) evenly balanced book. DelFattore demonstrates convincingly the inability of the courts to effectively defend a rigorous interpretation of intellectual freedom--the legal status of textbook challenges reflects rather the muddled and inconclusive values of the range of opinions held by the American public. Her identification of the boards of education as the true locus of power in the determination of what books actually are allowed to be taught provides a necessary clarification about the character of the textbook debate: the real challenge is not a legal one but a political one. This book is important reading for anyone wanting a complex understanding of the character and extent of censorship in today's society. Reviews: [note: the following reviews represent a somewhat random selection of the more than 11 reviews identified in the search] Bonnie Ericson, "The Censorship Crisis," English Journal, January 1996, 85:1, pp. 79-81. Positive review; stresses DelFattore's presentation of a balanced view of the censorship controversies; calls the book an important source for educators wanting to "know more about the legal and publishing implications of censorship." Sandra L. Wong, Contemporary Sociology, March 1994, 23:2, pp. 291-2. Calls the book useful and recommends it, but challenges the clarity of DelFattore's conclusions and suggests that other components of the textbook selection process not examined have more influence on decisions made by the Boards of Education. Michael Tubridy, Wilson Library Bulletin, January 1993, 67:5, p. 98. Likes the book; would have wished to see more interviews to probe into the psychology of the parties involved, and finds DelFattore's balance of evidence uneven--needs more information on book challenges brought by liberal groups. Nancy E. Zuwiyya, Library Journal, August 1992, 117:13, p 122. Positive review; recommends the book for academic libraries. Donna A. Demac Liberty Denied: The Current Rise of Censorship in America, (Rutgers: Rutgers University Press, 1990). 201 pages, index. Notes and "Selected Readings" at the end of each chapter. In Liberty Denied, Donna Demac provides a well-researched and frequently hard-hitting survey of the varieties of challenges free expression faces in the United States. Following the various themes of intellectual freedom (e.g.: textbook censorship; challenges to pornography; and corporate and governmental restrictions on individual expression, the media, and academic life) Demac concretely illustrates the character of the struggle to define the boundary between individual freedom and societal control. A strong advocate of the idea that "the right of free speech is at the center of American liberty, and the exercise of that right is basic to American democracy," Demac's book emphasizes that this right is under siege and that as a society we need to become increasingly vigilant to ensure that it is not significantly undermined. While Demac perhaps concentrates too much on the negative impact of the Reagan Administration and sounds a bit cataclysmic in her negative interpretation of recent trends, overall her argument is a sound one that contributes a significant synthesis of the scope and character of spirit of censorship in America today. Reviews: Felicia Helpert, The New York Times Book Review, October 16, 1988, p. 37. The Progressive, August 1988, 52:8, p. 31. 4. Theoretical Studies Dianne McAfee Hopkins Factors Influencing the Outcome of Challenges to Materials in Secondary School Libraries: Report of a National Study, (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Library Programs: August, 1991), 282 pages, Bibliography, apendicies. In this book Dianne McAfee designed and conducted a study intended to identify the key variables influencing the retention or removal of secondary school library materials receiving a censorship challenge. In the report McAfee summarizes the key research examining the response of libraries and librarians to censorship challenges and then she describes the design and results of her study. Using a two-tiered questionaire she first identified schools that had experienced library materials challenges. McAfee then sent a more comprehensive questionaire to the positive respondents. This questionaire elicited information on six variables: 1) the district materials selection policy, 2) characteristics of the librarian, 3) school environment, 4) community environment, 5) initiator of the challenge, and 6) complaint background. Factors found to be significant in influencing the retention of challenged materials were: 1) the existence and use of a board approved materials selection policy, 2) internal and external support provided to the librarian during the challenge, 3) overall support for the retention of challenged materials, and 4) the form of complaint, with written complaints being more likely to result in retention than oral complaints. McAfee's conclusions underline what might be considered common- sense observations--e.g. that a librarian supported by the principal in a challenge process is more likely to succeed in having the material retained--but the study does not break any significant new ground in understanding the social or psychological dynamics confronting librarians involved in a censorship situation. This book is worth consulting for its review of the research literature and for its quantitative support for anecdotal observations made by more journalistically oriented observers of the materials challenge process. Sue Curry Jansen Censorship: The Knot that Binds Power and Knowledge, (New York, 1991). 282 pages, bibliography, index. Censorship, The knot that Binds Power and Knowledge owes an unabashed debt to the first two persons of the Holy Trinity of post- modern discourse--Marx and Nietzsche. The argument of this book is predicated on the idea that knowledge and power are inextricably intertwined and that censorship provides the mechanism through which they interrelate. The author argues that censorship is an inevitable feature of all societies, and denies the claim--identified with the Enlightenment and Liberal tradition--that it has been expurgated from modern democratic/industrial systems. She indicates that modern societies possess their own covert forms of "constitutive" censorship that maintain the status of their underlying power relationships. She calls for the articulation of a more self- critical stance by the citizens of the industrialized world so that an effective defense against authoritarian censorship can be constructed. The book is divided into two sections. The first examines illustrative situations demonstrating how censorship has functioned in the past and in the modern world. She details the theoretical understanding of censorship from both a Liberal and a Marxist perspective and examines its function within both political systems. In the second section she develops a theory to comprehend the power-knowledge- censorship relationship and proposes a formal critical stance toward these structures as a way to mitigate their omnipotence. Jansen's discussion of censorship is complex and intriguing. She attempts a sophisticated theoretical exploration of the phenomenon, something that needs more exploration. Her discussion is bound to irritate a number of people because of her characterization of modern western political systems in essentially exploitative terms. She also tends to reduce the complexity of western society into neat strawmen that can be easily toppled. Nevertheless, her argument bears a careful reading because of the diverse (if radical) theoretical perspective she brings to the issue and because her critiques highlight some of the most insidious threats to intellectual freedom. Reviews: Phyllis Zangano, Journalism Quarterly, Summer, 1990, 67:2, p. 431. Critical of Jansen's post-modern point of view, questions the validity of her rejection of the existence of a community morality, and finds her argument flawed. Norman K. Denzin, The American Journal of Sociology, November, 1989, 95:3, p. 813. Calls this an important book that needs to be read by those who "intend to build a critical theory of meaning, censorship, and the media in this postmodern period of world history," but also finds it "frustrating," flawed and incomplete, and needing more foundation in the works of Derrida, Budrillard, Althusser, and Lacan. Frances Beck McDonald Censorship and Intellectual Freedom: A Survey of School Librarian's Attitudes and Moral Reasoning, (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press,1993). A study examining high school librarians attitudes toward the principle of intellectual freedom and the attendant issue of censorship articulated by the "Library Bill of Rights" (ALA) and the document "Access to Resources and Services in the School Library Media Program, An Interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights" (ALA). Examining a sample of school librarians from three midwestern states, the study looked at relationships between the acceptance of the principles of intellectual freedom and a rejection of censorship, relationships between various demographic variables and these principles, relationships between the acceptance of these principles and their translation into practice, and relationships between moral reasoning and these principles. The book contains two excellent chapters that survey the literature on libraries and intellectual freedom and the literature on moral development. The design of the instrument used to conduct the survey is described in detail in chapters 4 through 6, while the findings are detailed in the following four chapters. The book includes an excellent series of appendices that reproduce several key documents related to librarians and intellectual freedom, as well as copies of the two instruments around which the study is designed (Defining Issues Test and "Intellectual Freedom/Censorship Attitude Survey" . McDonald's findings can be summarized as follows: 1) Librarians who agreed with the intellectual freedom principles also tended to agree with the need to apply the principles (i.e. rejected censorship in principle) 2) But while advocacy of the principle of intellectual freedom was the norm, the study's measurement of the application of this principle pointed to a significant inconsistency: in practice Librarians bowed to pressures (implicit or explicit) to restrict access--either by not purchasing items or by targeting or limiting the acceptable audience for a given document--and effectively played the role of censor. 3) level of education and size of school proved to be positively correlated to an affirmation of the principle of intellectual freedom 4) Librarians educated in ALA accredited schools also showed a higher incidence of affirmation of this principle 5) membership in professional organizations provided a positive correlation 6) A high score on the moral reasoning instrument was correlated, but only modestly, with the affirmation of the principle of intellectual freedom This book is necessary reading for anyone contemplating statistical research into Librarian (or other professional) attitudes and practices toward censorship. The technical language and the limitations of the scope of the study, however, prevent the conclusions from being very profound. McDonald's reliance on the measurement of "moral development" is an intellectually unstable foundation for the study to possess considerable significance since the values assumptions embedded in the moral development research and in the instrument designed for this study raise numerous questions about the validity of the findings. Despite these flaws, the study is an interesting attempt to quantify relationships between values and actual practice and deserves to be examined carefully. Reviews: Dolores Maminski, Library Journal, January,1994, 119:1, p. 178. Summarizes McDonald's findings but makes no critical judgement of the work. 5. Practical: books intended primarily to inform action. Dave Marsh 50 Ways to Fight Censorship, and Important Facts to Know about the Censors, (New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1991). Foreword by George Plimpton. 128 pages, index. Someone seeking to explore the moral complexities and cultural dichotomies implicit in the issue of censorship would not seek out 50 Ways to Fight Censorship--nor for that matter would such a person write this book. Rock critic Dave Marsh reduces a complex subject into aphoristic categories with the result that 50 Ways reads more like a manifesto than an effort to promote understanding. Admittedly there is a place for this type of treatment of the subject and Marsh does a good (and lively) job of suggesting how you can transform yourself from a passive observer into an active participant. One of the best features of the book is its listing of pertinent addresses and resources, including: addresses of the major networks, addresses of arts groups with experience in confronting censorship, and names and addresses of the most prominent groups working to restrict access to books. Not for the faint of heart or the right of center, 50 Ways is a good resource for free speech advocates who find themselves needing a pep talk before plunging into action. Reviews: Wilda Williams, Library Journal, July 1991, 116:12, p. 118. Calls this book "essential for public libraries," but notes the lack of information on groups advocating political correctness, and cautions against Marsh's tone, which at times becomes "self-righteously hysterical." Intellectual Freedom Manual, 4th ed., (Chicago: Office for Intellectual Freedom of the American Library Association, 1992). 283 pages, index, bibliography. The Intellectual Freedom Manual is unquestionably one of the most important sources on censorship and intellectual freedom in print today. Published by the Office for Intellectual Freedom of the American Library Association, it represents the official articulation of the stance of this organization on this issue. It also reflects the considerable insight that the ALA's lengthy experience in wrestling with this issue has produced. The first two sections of the book examine the ALA's policy statements "Library Bill of Rights" and the "Freedom to Read," analyzing in detail the history and interpretation of the various facets and implications of these statements. The next two sections, a selection of essays written by a variety of different scholars, explore the meaning and significance of the concept of intellectual freedom and its impact upon the legal interpretations of the First Amendment. The final sections of the book detail practical measures people involved in censorship issues can take to help mitigate the impact of such actions. The material in the book is well organized and well written and provides a comprehensive overview of the conceptual and pragmatic character of intellectual freedom. The editors express the hope that librarians "keep this book close at hand as a convenient reference work," and indeed it provides an essential starting place for any substantive inquiry into the issue of censorship. Reviews: Dolores Maminski, Library Journal, July 1992, 117:12, p. 133. Calls it an "essential document" and says, "every librarian should become intimately familiar with the Intellectual Freedom Manual." Henry Reichman Censorship and Selection: Issues and Answers for Schools (Chicago: American Library Association, 1988). This book provides a concise overview of the issues and problems involved with censorship in the schools while also outlining pragmatic steps and suggesting policy guidelines and procedures that can be taken to help schools, teachers and librarians deal effectively with the growing problem of challenges to textbooks. Henry Reichman has been the Associate Editor of the _Newsletter on Intellectual Freedom_ and so has had considerable experience in analyzing and dealing with the issue of censorship. Reichman clearly and articulately defines the problem of censorship and describes its extent and increasing severity over the course of the last decade. He identifies the major "arenas" in which the conflict over access to material takes place (school libraries, the classroom, and the student press) and pinpoints the most potent issues that give rise to censorship attempts. On the practical side, he emphasizes the importance of clear selection policies and sketches several scenarios in an effort to help teachers, librarians and administrators anticipate their response to a challenge. The book also contains several useful appendices. These include documents pertinent to the definition of intellectual freedom, templates to help guide responses to a challenge, a summary of the most important legal cases, and a select annotated bibliography of literature on censorship from the past decade. This book provides a good--and balanced-- introduction to this complex topic. It is necessary reading for anyone who is likely to be involved in a censorship challenge in a school setting. Reviews: Norman Stevens, Wilson Library Bulletin, March 1989, 63:7, p. 100. Norman Stevens, Wilson Library Bulletin, February, 1994, 68:6 p. 64. Stevens reviewed this book in its original edition and in its revised edition. Both times he found it to be a strong work, emphasizing in particular the introductory chapter, which he calls, "a landmark statement on issues of censorship in schools." Robin Alinkofsky, Journal of Reading, December, 1989, 33:3, p. 236. Found this to be a strong work, called it the "most comprehensive" book on its subject.