"Webliography" LI 804 Bibliography Project

The Knowledge Structure of Atheletes

Sally Ganster

What This Bibliography is About -
Some Definitions
     The knowledge structure of athletes refers to the
information and knowledge that supports performance in athletics.
Here, athletics does not refer to sports in general, the
customary meaning of the word in the United States.  I use the
term as it is used internationally:  athletics means track and
field.  Therefore, an athlete is one who participates in the
sport of athletics.  Track events include runs (sprints, middle
distances, long distances, marathons, hurdles, cross country and
relays) and walks.  The field events include jumps (high jump,
long jump, triple jump, and pole vault) and throws (hammer throw,
javelin throw, discus throw, and shot put).  In addition, my use
of the term athlete refers to someone who participates in
officially sanctioned events, not to the casual walker, jogger,
or runner.

               Intended Users of This Bibliography
     The purpose of this resource list is to represent, in
summarized form, the structure of track and field athletes'
knowledge.  The list is intended as a resource for my student-
colleagues, at Emporia in the Rockies.  I hope it leads to an
understanding  that athletes have a large and complex structure
of knowledge.  Some of the documentary sources of this knowledge
are listed in the bibliography.  I hope that it will also be
useful to my student-colleagues in their professional lives as
they respond to the information needs of their clients.  

                Scope of the Bibliographic Search

      While the core of the bibliography is track and field, the
boundaries are somewhat fuzzy.  For instance, several resources
are about the Olympics.  The Olympics comprise more than just
track and field, to be sure.  However, running, jumping, and
throwing were the center of the original ancient Olympian Games
and have remained the center of the modern Olympic Games.  In
addition, more resources about running are available than there
are for jumping and throwing, probably because running has become
so popular in the U.S.  It was difficult to decide which running
resources to include and which to leave out, ie. which ones were
more appropriate for the athlete as opposed to those which were
designed for the serious, but non-athlete, runner.  I tried to
include what I thought to be key resources for running, but
recognize that running deserves a separate bibliography.
     This bibliography was assembled  by a non-athlete with the
help and advice of student-colleagues, sports librarians,
athletes and others knowledgeable about athletics.  I owe thanks
to classmate, Lily Acosta, who referred me to the Olympic
Training Center Resource Center in Colorado Springs.  This
library, and helpful staff, was a rich source of information.  I
started my research at my local public libraries:  Jefferson
County Public and Denver Public.  Both yielded many resources in
several media and formats.  I was able to find what I wanted
without much assistance.  Useful search words included: track and
field,  athletics, decathlon, field event, heptathlon, hurdle
race, pentathlon, race walk, relay race, running, steeplechase,
and trials. 
      I also did searches online (using track and field and
athletics as search terms) and discovered several athletics Web
sites.   I was fortunate to find The Worldwide Internet Track and
Field Information and Discussion Listserver (t-and-f mailing
list) which opened the door to contact with athletes and other
serious followers of the sport.  As a non-expert, I found these
contacts to be essential to discovering the structure of
athletes' knowledge.  I subscribed to the t-and-f mailing list
and posted this request:  "How do athletes become knowledgeable
about tack and field and how do you stay up to date on the sport? 
I am a non-athlete who is compiling a list of track and field
resources for a grad school library class assignment.  Would
anyone be willing to tell me what you use (including this mailing
list) as knowledge resources?  What books, magazines, newspapers,
organizations, online services, people, etc. do you rely on? 
Also, why do you consider each of your resources to be useful,
reliable, and authoritative?"  I received about fourteen replies,
the majority of which were very brief, but useful, lists of
magazines (always at least Track & Field News) web pages, and
listservers.  However, two subscribers, Chris Kuykendall and Ward
Nicholson, sent me their own lengthy, annotated bibliographies. 
Both are long-term, serious followers of the sport who have read
extensively on the topic of track and field.  Therefore, with
their permission, I have relied on their expertise and have woven
many of their annotations into my bibliography, citing each as
author where applicable.  
     Browsing in bookstores was of hardly any use in my search. 
Most of the sports books available in stores are about
commercially popular sports such as baseball, basketball, and
         Elements of the Knowledge Structure of Athletes
     Athletes' knowledge is practical knowledge which is
demonstrated in athletic performance (Wilson, 8).  All the
elements in the structure of athletes' knowledge are aimed at
running faster, jumping higher, or throwing farther.  Athletes
obtain much of their athletic knowledge by submitting to
coaching, by observing other athletes, and by competing in
athletic events. 
      Athletes' observation of other athletes is also extended in
time and space by the use of documentary sources in their monitor
system (Wilson, 37).  The monitor system would include items
consulted regularly, such as magazines (particularly Track &
Field News) and listservers.
     Backing up the practical, demonstrable knowledge of athletes
are vast reserve and advisory systems containing documentary
sources which provide the technical and theoretical knowledge of
importance to athletes.  The reserve system consists of sources
"irregularly or never used but still known to be available for
use" (Wilson, 37).  The advisory system consists of personal and
documentary advisors, connected with a licensed profession
(Wilson, 38).  Reserve and advisory systems documents may pertain
to:  track and field records/statistics, sports psychology (both
personal and social), coaching/training, biomechanics, sports
medicine, aesthetics of sport (sport as performance art), sports
management, sports law, sociology of sport, the organization and
management of meets, the architecture and design of sports
arenas, reporting of athletic events, history of athletics,
athletes' biographies, sports nutrition, athletic sponsorships,
athletic scholarships, rules and governing bodies, sports
marketing, sports agents, and athletic wear and equipment.  The
information from many of these areas, which an athlete needs in
order to build athletic knowledge (ie. increase skills), is
distilled through the athletic coach.  The coach, in turn relies
upon the coach's own monitor, reserve, and advisory systems.

                    Scope of the Bibliography
     In compiling this annotated list, I have attempted to
represent as many of the elements of the monitor and reserve
systems of athletes' knowledge as possible.  I omitted documents
representing elements of advisory systems in:   the highly
technical areas, the physical sciences, and professional areas
(such as law, medicine, architecture, and business).  I am not
qualified to evaluate documents in those fields and take Patrick
Wilson's advice to refer users of this bibliography to 
professional advisors for expertise in these areas.
     I omitted works of fiction and materials designed for
children and young adults.  Items which are included range from
those appropriate for the educated general reader to scholarly
works for the graduate student level. 
     I included quite a few biographies because they provide
information not only about the athlete, but also insight into
many of the other aspects of athletics as well.  Interestingly,
more of the public library biographies available were for
children than for adults.
     A section on athletics related organizations is included
because organizations such as governing bodies are very important
in athletics, as in any sport.  Governing bodies set the rules of
competition and judge the results.  Indeed, no athletic
achievement, no matter how exceptional, constitutes a record
unless it takes place in a competition which has been sanctioned
by an official track and field governing organization.

                   Format of the Bibliography
          Video resources are placed at the beginning of the list
because this medium is the most appropriate documentary
representation of athletic knowledge - that knowledge being
practical, dynamic, and performance based.  While there are fewer
videos than books on the list, the videos do contain depictions
of the aesthetic, historical, sociological, biographical, and
skill/techniques elements of athletics.  
     The bibliographic entries generally follow the MLA format,
except that I added notations of the length of the work (books
and videos), I noted what types of illustrations the books
contained, and told if a book had a bibliography or index.
     In the annotations I abbreviate track and field as t-and-f.

Wilson, Patrick.  Public Knowledge, Private Ignorance:  Toward a
     Library and Information Policy.  Westport, CT:  Greenwood
     Press, 1977.

Chariots of Fire.  Dir. Hugh Hudson. 1981.  (123
     minutes, color)
          Winner of the Oscar for Best Picture, this
     beautifully filmed movie tells the story of the
     rivalry between Harold Abrahams and Eric Liddell
     (although not in a strictly factual manner). 
     Contains fine acting by Ben Cross and Ian
     Charlson, in the lead roles and an inspiring sound
     track composed by Vangelis Papathanassiou.  A
     marvelous celebration of running.

Olympiad.  Dir. Bud Greenspan.  Bud Greenspan, 1976.  Paramount,
     1988.  (22 cassettes @ 46 minutes, black & white and color)
          This Emmy Award winning set of documentaries is
     predominantly about great moments and outstanding athletes
     in track and field.  The track and field related titles
     The African Runners:  Kip Keino, Abebe Bikila, and Mamo
     The Australians:  Ron Clarle, Herb Elliott, and John Landy.
     The Decathlon:  Bruce Jenner, Jim Thorpe, Bob Mathias, Bill
          Tumey and Daley Thompson.
          The winner of the decathlon is considered the finest
     all around male athlete in the world.  This video includes
     interviews with Jenner and Thompson.  The event footage
     really capture the excitement of the competition.
     The East Europeans:  Dana and Emil Zatopek.
     The Big One That Got Away:  Dave Sine, sprinter.
     The East Germans:  Waldemar Cierpinski.
     The 800 Meters:  Dave Wottle, Tom Courtney, Peter Snell,
          Alberto Juantorena, Steve Ovett, and Joachim Cruz.
     The Fastest Men in the World:  Harold Abrahams, Eric
          Liddell, Bob Hayes, Jim Hines, Valery Borzov, and Carl
     The 1500 Meters:  Paavo Nurmi, Kip Keino, Jim Ryun,
          Sebastian Coe, and Peter Rono.
     The Incredible Five:  Emil Zatopek, Paavo Nurmi, Al Oerter
          and Fanny Blankers-Koen.
     Jesse Owens Returns to Berlin.  
          The great Jesse Owens recounts how he won four gold
     medals at Hitler's 1936 Olympics.  The 1936 footage appears
     to be largely from Leni Riefenstahl's Olympia.  Owens
     explains not only why so many of national teams appear to be
     giving the Nazi salute in the opening ceremonies he also
     highlight his friendship with a German competitor - two
     aspects certainly missing from Riefenstahl's documentary.
     The Magnificent Ones:  Lasse Viren.
     The Marathon:  Dorando Pietri, Frank Shorter, Abebe Bikila,
          Joan Benoit Samuelson, Rosa Mota, Carlos Lopes, and
          Gelindo Bordin.
     The Persistent Ones:  Alain Mimoun, marathoner, and Percy
          Williams, sprinter.
     The Rare Ones:  Harrison Dillard, hurdler, and Irena
     The Soviet Athlete.
     They Didn't Have A Chance.
     Women Gold-Medal Winners:  Babe Didriksen Zaharias, Fanny
          Blankers-Koen, Micheline Ostemeyer, Wynona Tyus and
          Wilma Rudolph.
          This one covers outstanding women, beginning with
     Elizabeth Robinson, who at age sixteen became the first
     female Olympic gold medal winner in the first Olympic games
     in which women were allowed to compete.  Includes interviews
     with some of the athletes and beautiful footage of their

Olympia:  Part 1 - Festival of the People, Part 2 - Festival of
     Beauty.  Dir. Leni Riefenstahl.  Olympia-Film GmbH, 1938. 
     (201 minutes, black & white).
          This documentary of the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin is
     widely considered to be the standard by which all sports
     documentary films are judged.  Although it was commissioned
     as a propaganda piece by Hitler, this film far transcends
     mere propaganda.  Dave Kuehls, in Runner's World, called it
     "mystical, poetic, controversial. . . ."   The film opens
     with scene of nude athlete on location in Greece, lighting
     the Olympic torch to be brought to Berlin.  According to
     Zucker and Babish, in Sports Films, "Riefenstahl devised a
     number of techniques that were unique for the time.  For the
     100-yard dash, she had the camera mounted on a rail
alongside      the track to keep up with the runners."  
          Part 1 concentrates on track and field events, focusing
     on Jesse Owens and Korean marathoner, Keiti Son.  Part 2
     contains much footage of track and field events and of other
     sports including a long, beautiful diving sequence, made
     possible by Riefenstahl's innovative filming techniques. 
     The beauty of the sport and of the athlete's body shines
     through in this film.

Track and Field Coaching By the Expert Olympic Team Coaches
     (three cassettes @ about 40 minutes, color) The Athletic
     Institute, 1990.
          Part I - Running Events features Dr. LeRoy Walker
     (sprints and hurdles), Larry Ellis (relays),  and Stan
     Huntsman and Terry Crawford (middle and long distances).  
          Part II - Jumping Events has Tom Tellez coaching.  A
     video representation like this has to be the best way, if
not  the only way, to understand the inexplicable triple jump.
          Part III - Throwing Events has Tom Pagani coaching.  
     This set of coaching/training videos presents t-and-f
     techniques in dynamic visual representation by athlete with
     narrated descriptions by past and present Olympic team
     coaches.  The coaches note common faults and athletes
     demonstrate the suggested correcting drills.  Coaching is
     geared to the elite athlete.  The use of slow-motion and
     stop-action make this set of videos practical.  The TAC (now
     USA Track and Field) seal of approval gives this resource
     additional credibility.

Bannister, Roger.  The Four Minute Mile. New York:  Dodd, Mead
     and Company, 1955. (252 pages, black & white photos)
          This one is a classic.  It's the fascinating account of
     an athlete breaking the physical and psychological barriers
     of the four minute mile.  This well written book (by an
     athlete - not "with" a co-writer) is especially eye-opening
     in its depiction of the athletic scene in the late 40's-
     early 50's.  In those days, before over-commercialization,
     athletics had a somewhat "gentlemen's sport" aura.  Indeed,
     Bannister considered running to be secondary to his pursuit
     of a medical career.  Though a collegiate runner and member
     of a track team, Bannister did not have a coach.  Bannister
     relates how he learned from other athletes and from
     experience.  A good writer, he captures the excitement of
     his breakthrough race.

Benoit, Joan and Sally Baker.  Running Tide.  New York:  Alfred
     A. Knopf, 1987. (214 pages, black & white photos)
          "Autobiography of Benoit, later Joan Samuelson, the
     first women's Olympic gold medalist in the marathon, 1984"  

Butt, Dorcas Susan.  The Psychology of Sports:  The Behavior,
     Motivation, Personality and Performance of Athletes.  New
     York:  VanNostrand Reinhold Company, 1987.  (342 pages,
     chart illustrations, bibliography, name and subject indices)
          An explanation of sports psychology for researchers,
     professionals, graduate students, and advanced
     undergraduates.  This work includes motivation theory
     (illustrated by chart "model of levels of motivation"), the
     personality of the athlete, sex roles in sport,
     psychological help for athletes, and the sociology of sport. 
     The sociology section deals with sports as a social
     institution and as distinct sub-culture and also considers
     the both the cross cultural and global aspects of sociology
     as related to sport.  
          Butt is Associate Professor of Psychology at the
     University of British Columbia, with a PhD. in clinical
     psychology.  She's a former tennis player, was nationally
     ranked in Canada and played on the international circuit.

Cahn, Susan K.  Coming On Strong:  Gender and Sexuality in
     Twentieth-Century Women's Sport.  New York:  The Free Press,
     Macmillan, Inc., 1994.  (358 pages, photographs, extensive
     bibliography, index)
          In what began as her PhD. dissertation for the
     University of Minnesota, Cahn records the history of women's
     sport.  She relates how, through sport, women's gender and
     sexuality have been culturally constructed.  While not
     confined to t-and-f, the book does some focusing on black t-
     and-f athletes.  Cahn takes a social history perspective as
     she covers issues of race, class, and gender.  
          Publisher's Weekly (3 Jan. 1994) declared Coming On
     Strong "a winner."   Kathy Ruffle, writing in Library
     Journal (1 Feb. 1994) called it "scholarly" and recommended
     it for "all academic libraries, community college through
     graduate level."  Per Ruffle, "The copious notes are a
     researcher's gold mine."

Calhoun, Donald W.  Sport, Culture, and Personality 2nd Edition. 
     Champaign, Illinois:  Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc. 1981. 
     (380 pages, bibliography, index)
          Calhoun's book runs the gamut from the history of sport
     in society (from ancient to modern times) to sport and
     social organization and the social psychology of sport.  Not
     solely about t-and-f participants, but applicable to them. 
     Chapter 16, Athlete and Spectator deals with athlete-
     spectator interrelationship.  
          Calhoun is a professor at the University of Miami.

Derderian, Tom.  Boston Marathon:  The First Century of the
     World's Premier Running Event, Centennial Race Edition. 
     Champaign, Illinois:  Human Kinetics, 1996.  (635 pages,
     black & white photos, appendix, bibliography, index)
          Contains forwards by Joan Benoit Samuelson and Bill
     Rogers.  This book looks at the styles and personalities of
     the athletes as well as recounting the history of the Boston
     Marathon.  Derderian is an "insider" having been a
     marathoner, a coach, and a member of both the Greater Boston
     Track Club and Boston Athletic Club, Vice President of USA
     Track and Field, and working for many years in the research,
     design, and development of athletic equipment.  The author
     relates marathon lore in an engaging way that puts the
     reader into the race.

Doherty, Ken.  The Track and Field Omnibook, Fourth Edition. 
     Los Altos, California:  Tafnews Press, 1985.  (514 pages,
     line drawings and black & white photos, appendix,
     bibliography, name index, subject index, English- metric
     measurements conversion chart)
          Doherty's masterpiece is geared toward the coach.  It
     contains detailed analytical chapters on each t-and-f event,
     including:  history, techniques, training, common faults,
     possible improvements, and outstanding performers.  Of
     particular interest is Part One:  The Human Side of
     Coaching, Chapter 1 - The Development of Track Knowledge.  A
     weakness of the book its appalling typeface.

Hagwell, Stephen, ed.  1996 NCAA Track & Field/Cross Country
     Men's and Women's Rules.  Overland Park, Kansas:  NCAA,
     1995.  (240 pages, line diagrams, index)
          Covers both administrative rules and rules of conduct
     for college level athletics.  Major rules changes are
     highlighted and cross-referenced to the pertinent sections
     and articles.  Contains all the details, large, small, and
     minute:  construction of facilities, equipment
     specification, meet personnel requirements, meet
     requirements, definition of and rules for the track events,
     the field events, and the indoor events.

Hanley, Reid M.  Who's Who in Track and Field.  New Rochelle, NY:
     Arlington House, 1973.  (160 pages)          
          A little book, with a wealth of information, it
     contains brief biographies of 240 great male and female
     athletes, both American and international.  Needs to be
     updated, but still good for 1973 and before.

Hendershott, Jon.  Track's Greatest Women.  Los Altos, CA: 
     Tafnews Press, 1987.  (245 pages, black & white photos)
          Recounts the lives and athletic careers of fifteen
     outstanding women and gives brief profiles of 100 others. 
     The book is international in scope and is full of facts on
     rankings vital statistics, and honors won.  This work is the
     female counterpart to Track's Greatest Champions.

Jacoby, Ed.  Applied Techniques in Track & Field.  New York: 
     Leisure Press, 1983.  (line drawings, black & white photos,
          This book is by a coach, for coaches.  Jacoby, three-
     time "Coach of the Year", Big Sky Conference, and was
     "Outstanding Educator of the Year" in 1972, was motivated to
     write the book by his love and enthusiasm for the sport.  It
     covers all the events and includes a chapter by Bill Bakley
     on the decathlon.  Jacoby, while admitting to be an amateur
     in the scientific aspects of t-and-field (physiology,
     psychology, and bio-mechanics), writes about what he has
     learned in these areas as they apply to helping athletes
     develop their skills.  

Jarver, Jess, ed.  The Throws.  Los Altos, CA:  Tafnews Press,
     1985.  (158 pages, line drawings, black & white photos)
          The Throws is a compilation of previously published
     scholarly articles written by an international array of
     experts.  Contains detailed information on conditioning and

Jarver, Jess, ed.  The Jumps:  Contemporary Theory, Techniques,
     and Training.  Mountain View, CA:  Tafnews Press, 1994. 
     (126 pages, line drawing, black & white photos)
          This is the jumps counterpart to The Throws,
     immediately above and has the same format.

Lewis, Carl, and Jeffrey Marx.  Inside Track:  My Professional
     Life in Amateur Track and Field.  New York:  Simon &
     Schuster, 1990.  (240 pages, photos, index)
          T-and-f greatness was Carl Lewis' destiny:  he was born
     to athlete/coach parents and even met legendary Jesse Owens
     a decade before receiving an award named for that 1936
     Olympic great.  At the time of writing, Lewis held six
     Olympic gold medals.  Writing with Pulitzer Prize
     journalist, Marx, Carl Lewis exposes the seamier aspects of
     the sociology of t-and-f:  illegal college recruiting, paid
     "amateurs," and illegal performance enhancing drugs.
          Reviews of this book were generally favorable, for the
     information it reveals about the sport.  Per Merrill Noden,
     (Sports Illustrated, 16 July 1990) unfortunately the book is
     more about self-justification than self-exploration or
     exploration of the methods of his track success.  Most
     reviewers wished Lewis had told more about himself and his
     techniques and had complained less about the media and his
     inability to capitalize more off the sport.

Lowe, Benjamin.  The Beauty of Sport:  a cross-disciplinary
     inquiry.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1977. 
     (327 pages, black & white illustrations and photos,
     bibliography, index)     
          Few authors have approached sport as art, with beauty
     rather than violence being the social value.  Choice
     magazine (June 1977) said, "Lowe ingeniously focuses
     attention on the aesthetic value of sport.  He introduces
     an alternate way of looking at sport as well as
     participating.  Sport can be viewed aesthetically for the
     exhilarating and exciting action of great athletes; the
     author also points out how sport can be viewed personally,
     by searching through ways of self-expressions through
     physical  activity, and cites the joy one amy achieve from
     putting forth a great physical effort.  Superlative
     bibliographical references are found at the conclusion of
     the book.  This is  a great book that is most valuable at
     the graduate level but is also useful for advanced

Lucas, John.  The Modern Olympic Games.  Cranbury, NJ:  A.S.
     Barnes & Co., Inc., 1980.  (242 pages, black & white photos,
          A definitive work.  Because t-and-f is the center of
     the Olympic Games, an understanding of the modern Olympics
     is an essential component of the structure of the knowledge
     of athletes.

Nelson, Cordner.  The Jim Ryun Story.  Los Altos, CA:  Tafnews
     Press, 1967.  (272 pages, black & white photos)
          Nelson wrote Ryun's biography with the close
     collaboration of both athlete and his coach, Bob Timmons. 
     "Written soon after Ryun's first 3:51.3 world record for the
     mile.  Considered one of the classic books of track.  In
     addition to chronicling Ryun, who was an icon for many
     aspiring young distance runners of the time, this book is of
     some historical value in detailing the circumstances and
     tidbits about other of Ryun's miler contemporaries of the
     time" (Nicholson).

          Cordner Nelson is co-founder and editor of Track and
     Field News.

- - -.  Track's Greatest Champions.  Los Altos, CA:    Tafnews
Press, 1986. (385 pages, black & white photos)
          An updated, expanded version of Nelson's Track and
     Field:  The Great Ones, originally published in England in
     1970.  It contains twenty-one biographies of the greatest
     (male) athletes.  It also has a supplementary section of 257
     capsule profiles of other t-and-f greats.  This is the male
     counterpart of Track's Greatest Women.

- - - and Roberto Quercetani.  The Milers.  Los Altos, CA: 
     Tafnews Press, 1985.  (543 pages, black & white photos)
          The history of the milers from ancient times through
     January, 1985.  Special focus on Paavo Nurmi (Finland), Jack
     Lovelock and Peter Snell (New Zealand), Gunder Hagg and Arne
     Anderson (Sweden), Roger Bannister (England), Herb Elliott
     (Australia), and Jim Ryun (United States).  
          All about the mystique of the mile run.  Though it
     covers men only, this book is international in scope and
     full of facts and lore.

Nixon, Howard L. II.  Sport and the American Dream.  New York: 
     Leisure Press, 1984.  (264 pages, name index, subject index)
          Explores the myths and reality of the role of sport in
     the American consciousness.  Sport is used as a vehicle foe
     understanding the pursuit of the American version of
     success.  Emphasis on t-and-f is found in a subsection of
     Chapter 5, Professional and Olympic Sports in the United
          Nixon is associate professor, Department of Sociology,
     University of Vermont, teaching sport sociology.  He has
     also written for The Review of Sport & Leisure and The
     Journal of Sport and Social Issues.

Payne, Howard, ed.  Athletes in Action:  The Official
     International Athletic Federation Book of Track and Field
          Techniques.  London:  Pelham Books, Ltd., 1985.  (317
     pages, line drawings, charts, black & white and color photo
          Good to have when a dynamic medium like video isn't
     available or practical.  Draws upon the expertise of t-and-f
     experts from around the world.  Its explicit purpose is to
     fill the gap of the technical aspects of t-and-f events for
     the advanced athlete in order to improve athletic
     performance.  The IAAF stamp means this is official.

Quercetani, Roberto.  Athletics:  A History of Modern Track and
     Field Athletics (1860-1990) Men & Women.  Milan, Italy: 
     Nallardi & Associati, 1990. (322 pages, black & white
     drawing and photos and color photos, appendix of record
          A beautiful and exhaustive history devoted to t-and-f. 
     Numerous sidebars include interesting anecdotes.  An
     authoritative work.  
          Journalist Quercetani is European editor of Track &
     Field News (USA) and co-compiles its yearly "World Ranking." 
     He also helped found and lead the Association of Track and
     Field Statisticians. 

Rogers, Bill and Joe Concannon.  Marathoning.  New York:  Simon &
     Schuster, 1992.  (345 pages, black & white photos) 
          Autobiographical account tells how Rogers went from
     being a so-so high school runner to become the only man to
     win three major marathons:  Boston, New York, and Fukuoka. 
     Tells how he trains and runs.  Also includes Rogers' views
     on sportsmanship, coaching, and the politics of athletics.

Shorter, Frank and Marc Bloom.  Olympic Gold:  A Runner's Life
     and Times.  Boston:  Houghton Mifflin Company, 1984.  (258
     pages, black & white photos, appendix) 
          In 1972, Shorter became the first American marthoner to
     win an Olympic gold medal since 1908.  Many credit this win,
     and Shorter's subsequent career with popularizing running in
     this country.  Olympic Gold tells about his training,
     techniques, his career, as well as thoughts about other
     runners and the sport in general.  Favorably reviewed: 
     Library Journal (1 June 1984) recommended Olympic Gold for
     public libraries but Kirkus Review (1 May 1984) thought

     it not so much for the general reader, calling it,
     "Enlightening  for the pre-attuned."

Track & Field News.  Track & Field News's Big Red Book.  Los
     Altos, CA:  Tafnews Press.
          I did not see a copy of this to review, but it was
     recommended by both Nicholson and Kuykendall as a reference
     for running track meets.  "Detailed scoring tables for the
     ten events of the men's decathlon dn the seven events of the
     women's heptathlon.  Detailed metric-imperial conversion
     tables for the jumping and throwing events. Basic track and
     field rules and equipment specifications.  Notes on
     automatic versus hand timing and the effects of wind and
     altitude.  Other useful metric-imperial conversions,
     including metric mile (1500 meters) and mile (1609+
     meters)equivalencies.  Lap pacing tables.  Altitude of
     stadiums at selected cities, given in both meters and feet"
          The Big Red Book is readily available from Tafnews

Zucker, Harvey Marc and Lawrence J. Babish.  Sports Films:  A
     Complete Reference.  Jefferson, NC:  McFarland & Co., 1987. 
     (612 pages, indexes)
          Contains chapters on all the major sports.  Olympics
     and track and field are treated in the same chapter - its
     seventeen pages include quality films as well as some which
     are "on the fringe," according to the authors.  Good
     resource for the history and aesthetics of athletics, and
     history of the social roles of athletes.

                        MAGAZINE ARTICLES

Kuehls, Dave.  "Rated R. For 'Running,' that is.  The complete
     history of road-rack videos, Olympic documentaries and big-
     screen feature films about running."  Runner's World Dec.
     1992:  76-81.
          Kuehls reviews about forty videos/films in this
     article,  and awards gold medals to the best ones.  The
     byline states that Kuehls, "a runner and writer from Akron,
     Ohio, is faster than Roger Ebert.

American Track & Field.  Madison, WI:  Shooting Star Media, Inc. 
          Available free to every head track and cross country   
     coach who requests the magazine from Shooting Star (583
     D'Onofrio Dr., Suite 203, Madison, WI 53719).

Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology.  Champaign IL:  Human
     Kinetics Pub. Inc.,  quarterly plus annual supplement.
          The official publication of the North American Society
     for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity.  

Journal of Sport and Social Issues.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage
     Publications,  quarterly. 
          The official journal of the Center for the Study of
     Sport in Society.

Runner's World.  Emmaus, PA:  Rodale Press,  monthly.
          Primarily for the middle-distance (8000-3000 meter) and
     distance runner (3000 meter - marathon).

Sports Illustrated.  New York:  TIME, Inc., weekly.
          Covers all sports.  Some coverage for t-and-f,
     particularly Olympic Games.

Track & Field News.  Mountain View, CA:  Track & Field News,
          Definitely a key resource.  Founded by brothers Bert
     and Cordner Nelson in 1948, Track & Field News is the "bible
     of the sport."  It offers worldwide coverage of athletics
     including:  schedules of events, qualifying standards for 
     events, and records of achievement at levels high school
     through international.  
          "January lists the top fifty world and U.S. performers
     for the preceding year in order of running or hurdling time,
     jumping or throwing distance, or decathlon or heptathlon
     scores, covering both the men's and women's events.  March
     contains an outdoor season preview, particularly a detailed
     collegiate preview, and lists current track and field
     records (world, American, etc.).   April or May gives the
     results of the collegiate and U.S. indoor championships. 
     July or August, or sometimes September, moves to the results
     of the collegiate and U.S. outdoor championships, or the
     U.S. Olympic Trials.  September or October will feature a
     preview of the World Championships in odd-numbered years or
     the Olympic Games in Olympic Years.  October of November
     than has the results of the World Championships or Olympic
     Games, if any.  November to January have annual national
     high school rankings and reports on collegiate recruiting. 
     More generally, the magazine covers almost every important
     domestic and foreign meet, and sometimes more obscure meets
     if a significant performance occurs there.  It has
     photographs, sports stories, biographical pieces, and
     interviews, with segments addressing foreign, U.S.,
     collegiate, high school, road running, and cross country
     competition.  The magazine is a gateway to mail-order
     publication of Tafnews Press, its publishing wing" 
USA Thrower.  Baldwinsville, NY, bi-monthly. 
          "For the athlete, coach, or fan who is interested in
     the shot put, discus throw, hammer throw, javelin throw, or
     throwing events of the men's decathlon or women's
     heptathlon.  Advertised regularly in Track & Field News. 
     Apparently there are no counterparts for the hurdling or
     jumping events" (Kuykendall).


Amateur Athletic Union (AAU)
AAU House
3400 West 86 St.
Indianapolis, IN 46268

          Promotes amateur athletics for people of all ages, in
     or out of school.
                               * * *

Intercollegiate Association of Amateur Athletes of America
P.O. Box 3
Centerville, MA 02632

          Sponsors intercollegiate competition in cross country,
     indoor and outdoor track.

                              * * *

International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF)
17, rue Princesse-Florestine
BP 359
98007 Monte Carlo, Monaco

          The world governing body for t-and-f athletics.  Helps
     organize the Olympics, Pan American Games, and the
     Commonwealth Games.
                              * * *

International Olympic Committee
Chateau de Vidy
CH-1007 Lausanne, Switzerland

                              * * *

National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA)
6120 South Yale Ave., Suite 1450
Tulsa, OK 74136-4223

                              * * *

National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)
6201 College Blvd.
Overland Park, KS 66211-2422
                              * * *

National Federation of State High School Associations (NFSHSA)
P.O. Box 20626 
Kansas City, MO 64195

                              * * *

National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA)
P.O. Box 7305 
Colorado Springs, CO 80933-7305

                              * * *

Track & Field NCAA Division I Coaches Association
c/o Beverly Kearney
University of Texas at Austin
Bellmont 718
Austin, TX 78712
                              * * *

Track & Field Writers of America
P.O. Box 5401
San Mateo, CA 94402

                              * * *

United States Track Coaches Association
1330 N.W. 6th St., Ste. D
Gainesville, FL 32601

     Represents all levels of cross country and t-and-f coaches.
USA Track & Field
One RCA Dome, Ste. 140
Indianapolis, IN 46206-0102

          Formerly, The Athletic Congress (TAC).  Promotes
     amateur athletics throughout the U.S.  The national
     governing body for t-and-f, long distance running, and race
     walking.  Establishes rules, maintains standards, and issues
     sanctions for competition.  Is the U.S. member of the IAAF.

                              * * *

United States Olympic Committee (USOC)
One Olympic Plaza
Colorado Springs, CO 80909

                       INTERNET RESOURCES

American Track & Field Home Page -
          This is the online version of American Track & Field
     magazine, both of which are available free to head track and
     cross country coaches.  Visit the home page for instructions
     on how to subscribe.     

Athletics Home Page - http://www.hkkk.fi/~niininen/athl.html
          Athletics Home Page was awarded the Top 5% rating by
     Point in February 1996.  "Up to date world and world junior
     records.  National records from over thirty countries"

The IAAF Home Page - http://www.wca95.telia.se/iaaf/index.htm
          The IAAF is the highest authority on athletics in the
     world.  Its home page includes a link to IAAF's official
     list of world records - key information for athletes.

Do It Sports (DIS) Running - http://www.doitsports.com/running
          "Timely coverage of athletes who have achieved recent
     breakthroughs or surprise performances. Quest columns by
     selected runners, in some cases with question-and-answer
     opportunities.  The major electronic source (go to News) for
     t-and-f results form recent high school, collegiate, and
     elite meets, including elite foreign meets" (Kuykendall).

Master's Track & Field Home Page -
          News for and about Masters level athletes.

t-and-f mailing list
          This very active listserver was founded for the
     purposes of sharing results, information, insights, and
     opinions about elite level track and field and its
     associated sports:  cross country, road racing, marathoning
     and ultra-marathoning, and race walking (ie. anything that
     falls under the jurisdiction of the IAAF, USATF, or other
     national athletics governing bodies.  Postings run the gamut
     from practical ("I need a ride to such and such track
     meet.") to ongoing discussions of controversial issues
     (doping, for example).  The subscribers, both athletes and
     spectators are enthusiastic and knowledgeable.  This
     mailing list is informative and lots of fun.  To  subscribe
     to the t-and-f mailing list, email to                       
     "majordomo@lists.uoregon.edu".  Leave the subject area      
     blank.  In the body of the message place the command: 
     subscribe t-and-f.  Confirmation arrives by email.  Archives
     of the list are located at:  the t-and-f mailing list
     archive - http://www.dsv.su.se/~matti-hu/track.html

The Thrower's Page -
          Devoted to the athletics of t-and-f throwing events: 
     shot put, discus throw, hammer throw, and javelin throw. 
     Contains links to related publications and organizations.

USA Track & Field Home Page -  http://www.usatf.org/
          USA Track & Field (USATF) is the national governing
     body for track and field, long distance running, race
     walking, and cross country.  USATF is also the United
     States' member of the International Amateur Athletic
     Federation, the world body for athletics, as well as a
     member of the U.S. Olympic Committee.  Home page includes
     valuable links.

USA Track and Field Pole Vault Page -
          Similar to the USATF Home Page except dedicated to pole

USA Track & Field Long Distance Running Pages -
          Similar to the USATF Home Page except devoted to long
     distance running.

                        SPECIAL LIBRARIES

National Track & Field Hall of Fame Historical Research Library
     Rare Books and Special Collections
     Irvin Library
     Butler University
     4600 Sunset Ave. 
     Indianapolis, IN 46208

Olympic Training Center Resource Center
     United States Olympic Training Center
     One Olympic Plaza
     Colorado Springs, CO 80909-5760