"Webliography" LI 804 Bibliography Project

Mind/Body Dichotomy: Annotated Bibliography

Teresa J. Hibbert

May 10, 1996


This bibliography has been put together to accompany a weekend seminar 
on mind/body dichotomy taught to graduate students in library and 
information science.  Mind/body dichotomy, while at first seeming to have 
no relationship to this field, is actually of major importance, because of 
today's usage of artificial intelligence and expert systems in libraries and 
information professions.  Information professionals are affected by 
technological developments in their daily work and should be contributing 
to future research and development.  In order to do so, they must have an 
understanding of the theories underlying current attempts at developing 
expert systems and of the history leading up to today's applications.  This 
bibliography will provide the means of gaining that knowledge.

During the research for this project, I had the serendipitous experience of 
observing five presentations submitted by companies hoping to be 
selected as the vendor for the new client/server system about to be 
installed by the library in which I work.  It clarified for me the 
importance of understanding where the information field is going with 
technology, and also whetted my curiosity to know where these 
applications had begun, what the theories behind them were.  I was led all 
the way back to Descartes in my search.

My first step upon being given this assignment was to consult with Hasker 
P. Davis, Ph.D., brain researcher and professor specializing in aging and 
memory at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs.  The first 
person he recommended was Churchland, but he also suggested I look at 
Sperry and Penrose.  All of these authors are included in this bibliography.  

As I began to look at the works by the aforementioned authors, I realized 
that I was going to have to go back to very early philosophy to fully 
represent these theories, as virtually every modern theorist of the mind, 
whether supportive or not, referred to the earliest thinkers.  Descartes 
was a constant referral, so I began with him.  Once I realized that it was 
with Descartes that the mind/body debate began, I was able to find my 
starting point.  The other philosophers included in this bibliography were 
also frequently cited by modern theorists, so I investigated them as well.  
Only the most influential have been cited.

The early debate seems to have started as a way of proving or disproving 
the existence of God, but then in the mid-twentieth century, it turned to 
the possibility of developing artificial intellligence (AI).  Thus it was 
necessary to also investigate that field.  Because of the plethora of 
information about AI, it was difficult to keep my research focused.  Since 
the topic of my research is the mind/body dichotomy, I have narrowed my 
citations primarily to the philosophical questions behind AI, although 
there are a few which address its practical applications so that the 
student can see why he or she must understand the philosophy of AI.

I felt that to ask library students to read and understand the works of 
major early philosophers would be unreasonable; therefore, with the 
exception of Descartes, I have chosen to recommend respected companion 
volumes (Cambridge, when possible) to these thinkers.  Essays in these 
volumes are taken by known and respected scholars from around the world 
and offer differing views about the philosophers, while at the same time 
putting their views into terms that are easily understandable to the 
average graduate student.  A thorough knowledge of the philosophy is not 
necessary to the student; however, a basic understanding of the history of 
the philosophy of the mind is imperative to comprehend the current 
debate, especially as it relates to AI and computer use in the library.  
Thus, I have attempted to ease the burden by offering comprehensible 
works and pointing out key elments in the works herein cited.

My primary method of establishing authority was to note who was citing 
whom, and to determine which research was jumping off of other 
research.  One of the most powerful tools I discovered for doing this was 
the Social Sciences Citation Index.  Once I had a grasp of the leading 
names of modern theorists and a few articles that seemed promising, I 
looked to the Citation Index to see who had been cited by those I had 
determined to be the leaders in the fields, and who those leaders were 
themselves citing.  I have come up with what I see as a web of modern 
theorists who are influencing the future of the philosophy of mind as it 
relates to AI.  I also relied on the respectability of journals in which I 
found articles, biographical sketches of the various authors, and upon the 
suggestions and direction of Hasker Davis.

Prior to this exercise, I had never used abstract and indexes, and had a 
very difficult time with these sources.  I learned to use Ulrich's Directory 
to Periodicals, but found this to be a rather cumbersome method of 
research.  Much of my searching was conducted through First Search Basic, 
using mostly WorldCat and Article1st, although I did search other 
databases in the system.  I did not wish to use only sources found in my 
own library (University of Colorado at Colorado Springs), so I ordered 
about half of my cited sources through Interlibrary Loan, as I wished to 
look at my sources instead of relying solely on reviews or abstracts.  
There are, however, a few entries in this bibliography that I was not able 
to obtain copies of but felt needed inclusion; these are noted in the 

I preferred using online abstracts, but found that these are often 
insubstantial, at least to my particular topic.  I was also surprised to find 
that two of the abstracts I located were essentially plagiarisms of the 
authors' own summaries.  While I did use abstracts, I found I was more 
comfortable at least scanning my sources.  The online abstract services I 
used were PsychLit, INSPEC, and other databases found on First Search 

I also feel it is necessary to address the issue of frustration in my 
research.  Even though I work in a library and am familiar with certain 
search techniques, I still became very frustrated at the beginning of my 
research.  I expected a certain level of anxiety due to unfamiliarity with 
the subject, but I encountered the most frustration with the research 
itself.  I had to master a variety of library tools with which I was 
unfamiliar and which did not lend themselves to ready use.  The most 
interesting thing that came out of this experience was learning first-hand 
that a librarian is not just a librarian, but each has his or her own 
strengths.  One helped me with the technology, one helped me master the 
tools, and one was exceptionally skilled at drawing out of me the 
questions I really had about what I was doing.  While all of these are 
valuable strengths, I could not help but recall Kuhlman's theory about 
anxiety in research.  The librarian who helped me determine what exactly 
it was that I wanted went the greatest distance in helping me with this 

This bibliography will give the student a thorough understanding of the 
mind/body dichotomy and how it relates to library applications.  There is 
no clear ending to this topic as the research is progressing at a furious 
pace, so I have organized these sources into chronological order.  I begin 
with the earliest philosophers of the mind, then move into modern theory.  
The bibliography takes a turn with the Turing entry, though.  Turing 
represents the beginning of computer theory, and the bibliography 
likewise turns to computing theories.  It begins to focus on the philosophy 
of mind as it relates to computing theory, with an emphasis on its use in 
the information professions.  

Each annotation includes a brief summary of the major points of the work 
cited, and why I have chosen it for the bibliography.  I have used the 
Modern Language Association format for citation, both for the main entry 
and for the occasional citation within the annotations.  Rather than 
include every review I was able to locate for books, I have only coded 
pertinent entries to indicate that such reviews exist.  Following each 
main entry, I have noted where to find directions to reviews by placing the 
intitials BRI if it is listed in Book Review Index, and BRD if it is listed in 
Book Review Digest.  I have also noted in which year these reviews are 
listed.  I have chosen this method because some of these books have ten or 
more reviews and I did not wish to clutter up the bibliography; however, 
citations are included for the student who wishes to locate them.

Throughout this bibliography, the initials AI are used to indicate artificial 


Wilkinson, Ross, and Philip Hingston.  "Artificial Intelligence, Knowledge 
Systems, and the Future Library: A Special Issue of Library Hi-Tech."  
Library Hi-Tech (Issue 37-38) 10.1-2 (1992).

	This article is listed first because it provides a good overview of 
the structure of this bibliography.  It introduces the concept of AI and the 
philsophical foundations underlying it.  The article also offers a brief 
history of computing and addresses the impact of computing on various 
library operations.  I recommend that this brief article, which contains its 
own excellent bibliography of pertinent articles and current research, be 
read before proceeding with the remainder of this bibliography to gain an 
understanding of the overall intent.  This issue of Library Hi-Tech is cited 
several times in this bibliography.

Vietch, L. L. D., John.  The Method, Meditations, and Philosophy of 
Descartes.  Washington & London: M. Walter Dunne, 1901.

	There are many versions of Descartes' work available; I chose this 
one for a number of reasons.  First, it contains all of Descartes' major 
works in one volume.  Second, it is translated directly from the original by 
the author.  Third, although this is not a scientific method, the due date 
slip indicated that it is checked out far more frequently than other 
versions, suggesting that it is a popular version.  Descartes is listed at 
the beginning of the philosophy section because the mind/body dichotomy 
debate essentially began with him and subsequent philosophers and 
theorists on the topic refer to him as the father of the philosophy of 
consciousness.  Descartes offered his proofs that the mind's existence 
must be possible independent of the body and began the debate over 
whether consciousness is inseparable from the body, a debate that 
remains central to the mind/body dichotomy in AI theory today.  Descartes 
was also the first to base philosophy on consciousness -- cogito ergo sum.  
This volume begins with a good introduction to the philosophy of 
Descartes and includes the thoughts of Malebranche and Spinoza, two 
influential Cartesian thinkers who attempted, through what is called 
Hegelian criticism, to "correct and elucidate" Descartes.  The introduction, 
though lengthy, can be read alone to gain a basic understanding of 
Descartes' theories and the criticisms against them.  In Descartes' own 
writings, read especially the First Meditation (the grounds upon which we 
may doubt all, especially material things), the Second Meditation (the 
mind exists itself), and the Sixth Meditation (the mind is distinct from 
the body; the act of understanding is distinguished from imagination).  
Descartes belief that there will "ultimately be found a mechanical 
equivalent to each state of consciousness," and the question "what is the 
mechanical equivalent if knowledge is entirely restricted to states of 
consiousness?" are still at the center of the debate over AI and an 
understanding of his philosophy is necessary to the student studying the 
philosophy of the mind in relation to AI.

Balz, Albert A.  Descartes and the Modern Mind.  1952.  Hamden: Archon 
Books, 1967.  (BRD 1952)

	This book is included because the author is a respected Cartesian 
scholar who has written about the influence Descartes has had on modern 
man.  Dense reading, but helpful for those who wish to know more about 
why Western people think the way they do about their consciousness.  For 
the purposes of this bibliography, only chapters 5, 9, 10, 19, and 21 are 
relevant, dealing as they do with knowledge as it pertains to the 
mind/body dichotomy.

Sorell, Tom, ed.  The Cambridge Companion to Hobbes.  Cambridge 
Companions.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

	Hobbes is primarily known as a political philosopher, but many of 
the works reviewed for this bibliography contained references to him so 
his work was also investigated.  Hobbes, in addition to political 
philosophy, was concerned with many other ideas, such as mathematics 
and physics.  He refuted the ideas of Descartes.  Read chapter two, which 
presents an overview of Hobbes' scheme of the sciences, and chapters 
three and four, which explain Hobbes' objections to Descartes and show 
his own ideas about knowledge in relation to the mind.  Each essay is 
well-documented and there is an extensive bibliography following the 
text.  Includes biographical sketches of each contributor and a name and 
subject index.

Chappell, Vere, ed.  The Cambridge Companion to Locke.  Cambridge 
Companions.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.  (BRI 1995)  

	Locke is well-known as a philosopher in many areas, including human 
understanding and the mind/body dichotomy.  It is necessary to read only 
the chapters cited.  Chapter one, which is a short "life and times" of Locke.  
Chapter two, explaining Locke's theory of "ideas" and how all human 
knowledge is founded from them; how ideas form thinking.  Chapter three, 
explaining Locke's philosophy of body.  Paradoxically, he accepted 
Descartes distinction between the world's mental and physical aspects.  
Chapter four, about Locke's philosophy of mind.  While accepting Descartes 
dualism, Locke believed that mentality and physicality could be present in 
the same thing.  Chapter six, about Locke's theory of knowledge.  Locke 
believed that some was gained by experience, the capacity to learn being 
given by God, and some was innate, given directly by God.  Also read 
chapter ten, addressing Locke's influence.  Locke is often contradictory 
and can be difficult to understand.  This chapter is recommended because 
it helps explain Locke's ideas and how he has influenced Western thought.  
His paradoxical ideas about the mind/body dichotomy are very influential 
on modern computing theories and the student should attempt to 
understand them.  Includes bibliography, biographical sketches of each 
contributor, and a name and subject index.

Yolton, John W.  The Locke Reader.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 
1977.  (BRD 1978)


	This volume is included because, as Locke is difficult to understand, 
the student may wish to go directly to the source for clarification.  It 
contains the most commonly used parts of Locke's writings.  While almost 
all sections apply to this bibliography, those that are most relevant are 
found in the Essay Concerning Human Knowledge.  Also helpful are the 
following sections in Part II, The Doctrine of Signs: The Origin of Ideas, 
Experience as the Source, and Physiology.  In Part III, The Science of 
Action, Action and the Person may be useful.

Norton, David Fate, ed.  The Cambridge Companion to Hume.  Cambridge 
Companions.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.  (BRI 1995)

	As with Hobbes, I discovered many references to Hume in my 
research on this topic and so pursued them,  Hume also refutes Cartesian 
ideas.  He deals primarily with thought and the relations between or 
among objects of the "material world."  The introduction contains a 
biography of Hume and the context of his philosophy.  Read chapter one, an 
introduction to Hume's philosophy, and chapter two, an essay focusing on 
his philosophy of the mind, (which he considers a science), how it reasons 
and gains knowledge, and the existence of the body and how it influences 
the mind.  Also contains two short biographies following the essays, a 
bibliography, and a name and subject index. 

Ryle, Gilbert.  The Concept of Mind. 1949.  London: Hutchinson & Co., 1963.

	Ryle is one of the leading mind philosophers of the twentieth 
century, presenting an anti-Cartesian theory.  He makes a distinction 
between the physical being as public and the mental being as private.  
There are minds and there are bodies, but they are inseparable; one cannot 
exist without the other.  Emphasizes that there is a difference between 
knowing how and knowing that, or that we are unaware of how we acquire 
and use some of our knowlege.   Argues that our minds are not "ghosts in 
the machine" (bodies), but can be described materially.  We can understand 
other minds because our actions betray its workings.  However, Ryle also 
believes that our minds cannot be reduced to purely mechanical operating 
systems.  Oddly, though, Ryle's argument that the mind is not separate 
from the body but is completely observable lends credence to researchers 
who claim that machines can be built and programmed to "think" in a 
manner similar to the human mind.  At one point Ryle discusses 
pretending, a capability which humans have and which can probably never 
be replicated in a machine.  He makes a very strong argument that 
intellect requires gaining knowledge and that recitation by rote memory 
(which is "thinking" in computers) is not an exercise of the intellect.  
Through his argument that the mind is inseparable from the body, Ryle 
raises important issues both supporting and refuting the possibility of 
achieving a true AI.  Ryle writes clearly and this book is not difficult to 
read.  Contains name and subject index.

Wisdom, John.  Other Minds.  1952.  Oxford: Blackwell, 1965.  (BRI 1965-84  

	John Wisdom is a respected scholar in the philosophy of the mind, 
frequently cited by modern theorists.  While this book, a series of essays, 
is not directly "about" the mind/body dichotomy, it is included because it 
directly addresses the problem of "other minds."  Can we know how other 
minds operate or can we only "know" our own minds?  This book is set up 
in a clever and fascinating manner.  Essays two through eight are 
presented as a debate represented by colors, primarily black and white, 
with occasional contributions by grey and brown, thus removing the 
presence of the author and allowing the debate to be presented from a 
variety of veiwpoints.  More than a nodding acquaintance with philosophy 
of the mind is necessary to fully appreciate this book; nevertheless, it is 
highly recommended, not only for it's unique format but also because it 
deals with a very central issue to the future of AI: is it possible to 
understand the operation of a mind other than one's own?  The answer, if 
it is ever determined, will affect whether or not true AI is ever achieved.  
This book is not indexed.  It is, however, heavily footnoted, which can be 
very distracting, but the book can be safely read without looking at the 
footnotes, which can be returned to at a later time if desired.

O'Connor, John, ed.  Modern Materialism: Readings on Mind-Body Identity.  
New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1969.

	This book is included because it represents the beginning of the "new 
wave" of thinking about the mind/body problem in Western thought 
following the advent of computing.  The mind/body problem, as is evident 
from this bibliography, is a centuries-old question; however, since 
Turing's Machine (listed later in this bibliography) was developed in the 
1950's, the question as it applies to AI has gained new fervor.  The 
authors Feyeraband, Place, Nagel, Quine, Sellars, Rorty, and Putnam, all of 
whom are cited by today's leading theorists, are represented in this 
collection of essays.  Highly recommended for the variety of viewpoints 
presented in one volume.  Each essay is footnoted, and a comprehennsive 
bibliography follows the texts.

Margolis, Joseph.  Knowledge and Existence: An Introduction to 
Philosophical Problems.  	New York: Oxford 
University Press, 1973.  (BRI 1965-84 Cumulation, BRD 	1973) 

	Although the subtitle of this book is misleading, for it is in no way 
an introductory text, it is included because Margolis is a respected 
scholar who has contributed much to the mind/body debate and is 
frequently cited by modern theorists in this and related fields.  The book 
is a series of essays which deal with the philosophy of knowledge and 
existence, but chapters seven and eight, addressing language and 
mind/body respectively, are most pertinent to this bibliography.  Margolis 
agrees with Chomsky that language is a barrier to AI, in that it favors 
incomplete utterances and implicit messages, which is incompatible with 
natural language processing in computing.  He offers considerations from 
both sides of the mind/body problem, stating that all theories have 
something to add to the debate but that none are complete enough to fully 
explain the mind.  While not seeing AI as an impossible task, he asserts 
that more understanding of the mind/body problem is needed before it can 
be achieved.  This book is also recommended because the essays can be 
read independently of one another; it is not necessary to read the book 
from cover to cover; rather, it can be read for areas of particular interest.  
Includes name and subject index.

Nagel, Thomas.  "What is it Like to be a Bat?"  Philosophical Review 83 
(1974): 435-450.

	Nagel's article is one of the most cited articles in the mind/body 
literature (one subdivision in Dennett's Consciousness Explained is titled, 
"What it is Like to be a Bat" -- italics added).  In it he argues that 
reductionism is insufficient to understand the relation between mind and 
body and that the difficulty lies with consciousness.  In order to "know" 
what it is like to be a bat, or even form a conception of it, one must be a 
bat, or have experience from the subjective point-of-view of the bat.  
Nagel argues that mental processes cannot be observed from another 
point-of-view, but only directly by the organism owning that particular 
mind, and asserts that a physical theory of mind cannot be comtemplated 
until we have a more thorough grasp of objective and subjective 
experience.  He closes the paper with an exhortation to philosophers and 
scientists pursue that goal.  This article is important to read because of 
the impact it has had on the mind/body problem since it was published.  

Matson, Wallace I.  Sentience.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 
1976.  (BRI 1965-84 Cumulation, BRD 1976)

	Matson is another respected contributor to the mind/body debate.  He 
asserts that sensations are necessarily brain processes and that the mind 
and body are inseparable.  In this book he addresses the question of public 
(physical) versus private (mental) processes, concluding that, between 
humans, nothing is truly private; since we share the same structures, 
what is observable to one is observable, though perhaps in different 
manners, to all.  He argues that sentience involves a capacity to "size up" 
a situation, to note special features, to see the whole and to make 
decisions.  Although he concedes that he cannot prove it, he makes a 
reasonable argument against the possibility of a sentient machine. 
Footnoted throughout.  Includes a name and subject index.

Levin, Michael E.  Metaphysics and the Mind/Body Problem.  Oxford: 
Clarendon Press, 1979.  (BRI 1965-84 Cumulation, BRD 1980)

	Levin is a frequently cited philosopher of the mind by researchers in 
AI.  In this book he attempts to explain that all conscious sensations, 
intentional attitudes, 'private' mental states, and will are physically 
explainable.  His arguments are strong, but this is a difficult read.  While 
all is important to the mind/body problem, I recommend reading 
thoroughly only chapter six -- Computers, or is there Intelligent Life on 
Earth?  He addresses several arguments against AI, including those based 
on language postulated by Chomsky (listed in this bibliography).  Levin's 
refutations are strong and well-reasoned, and he concludes that not only 
can AI be achieved, but that cognitive simulation (sentient computers) can 
be achieved, if we are willing to open our minds to new and different ways 
of perceiving computers.  It is a very intriguing chapter.  Text is 
footnoted, and there are individual name and subject indexes.

Fodor, Jerry A.  Representations: Philosophical Essays on the Foundations 
of Cognitive Science.  Cambridge: MIT Press, 1981.  (BRI 1965-84 

	A leading modern philosopher in the mind/body problem, Fodor is 
frequently cited by his contemporaries.  The introduction to this book 
identifies various lenses through which to look at the theory of cognitive 
science, such as dualism, monism, physicalism, functionalism, etc., and 
discusses why these are important to computing, starting with the Turing 
Machine.  Following is a series of ten essays dealing with these ways of 
looking at cognitive science, explaining the pros and cons of each.  Each 
essay gives a nod to its relevance to computing, but chapters 2, 3, 4, 6, 
and 8 relate directly to computation and AI.  Fodor is an excellent writer 
with a clear style which is occasionally injected with dry humor.  It is 
easily understood by the layperson and is recommended for it's easy 
clarification of the theories behind cognitive science.  The book ends with 
an extensive series of notes on the text, references, and a name index.

Fodor, Jerry A.  The Modularity of Mind.  Cambridge: MIT Press, 1983.  (BRI 
1965-84 Cumulation, BRD 1984)

	This lengthy essay is a discussion of "faculty psychology," or "the 
view that many fundamentally different kinds of psychological 
mechanisms must be postulated in order of explain the facts of mental 
life"(1).  Faculty psychology asserts that our minds are a set of distinct 
psychological mechanisms, each of which can be studied individually.  If 
this proves to be true, then the possibilities of developing true AI become 
more real.  Fodor addresses computers specifically, but emphasizes that 
"they generally interface with their environments via some human 
being"(41) in an attempt to explain faculty psychology through the lens of 
computing, using specifically the terms "input systems" and "central 
processing."  It is interesting to explain the mind in terms of computers 
when the AI researchers are attempting to create the opposite -- a 
computer built on a model of the mind.  Extensive notes follow the essay, 
along with a reference list, but there is no index.  Throughout this essay, 
Fodor repeatedly asserts that he does not claim to have answers to all of 
these questions; however, his questions deserve further research.

Peck, James, ed.  The Chomsky Reader.  New York: Pantheon, 1987.  (BRD 

	Although Chomsky is known for his political philosophy, he is 
frequently cited for his contributions to the theory of knowledge and must 
be included in this bibliography.  Read Language and Freedom (145-155), in 
which Chomsky argues that the use of language is a criterion for 
determining that another being has a mind.  This has proven to be a major 
point in the development of AI and expert systems, hence the recent push 
for the development of "natural language processing."  Also read Equality, 
addressing the questions, what is human nature, and what makes humans 
unique?  He again discusses language, and also consciousness and our 
brains.  The book includes extensive notes on the essays and a name and 
subject index.

Churchland, Paul M.  Matter and Consciousness: A Contemporary 
Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind.  1984.  New material.  Cambridge: 
MIT Press, 1988.  (BRI 1985-92 Cumulation)

	Churchland is one of the most prominent and respected philosophers 
in the fields of neuroscience and cognitive science today.  If no other item 
in this bibliography were read, this one would provide an excellent 
introduction to the current debate over the mind/body problem and it's 
application to AI.  Churchland provides an overview of the various 
theories, arguing the pros and cons of each.  He addresses the issues of 
language, other minds, knowledge, intelligence, etc., and discusses how 
these problems should be approached, offering a variety of possibilities.  
Chapter six on AI should be read especially closely, in which he offers an 
excellent discussion of the topic.  He questions whether AI can be 
achieved, gives a good explanation of what a computer is and does, and 
addresses the various diffficulties facing AI researchers.  He presents 
some existing programs, stating where we are in current research and 
where we are going.  Computers can perform only one task at a time 
(serial processing), which limits AI, but current research is pursuing the 
possibility of a computer performing many tasks simultaneously (parallel 
distributed processing), which is discussed at length in chapter seven, 
along with a brief history of neuroanatomy.  It is in chapter seven that 
Churchland asserts his belief that AI can only be achieved with an 
embodied computer, one with some sort of proprioception.  Churchland is 
an excellent writer and his enthusiasm for his work is apparent.  This 
book is easily understood and raises many exciting possibilities.  Highly 
recommended.  Each chapter concludes with a list of recommended 
readings, and there is a name and subject index.

Gardner, Howard.  The Mind's New Science: A History of the Cognitive 
Revolution.  New York: Basic Books, 1985.  (BRI 1985-92 Cumulation, BRD 

	Although Gardner is best known for his work in cognitive psychology 
and most recently, his theory of multiple intelligences, this bibliography 
would be incomplete without his inclusion.  In this book, Gardner presents 
the history of cognitive philosophy, beginning with the earliest Greek 
thought.  In chapter six he specifically addresses AI, discussing at length 
it's history since the 1950's.  He also discusses the famous "Chinese 
Room" (Minds, Brains, and Programs) of John Searle, which itself 
generated an amazing amount of debate over the possibility of AI.  Searle 
argued that even if he were to learn to manipulate Chinese symbols in a 
manner that would seem to an external observer that he was writing in 
Chinese, he would still not understand it; thus, a computer which 
manipulates symbols cannot be said to understand or to be "intelligent."  
Gardner uses this famous piece as a springboard for presentation of the 
debate surrounding AI.  He believes that computers and human minds are 
remarkably similar, but emphasizes the role of AI as a way to help 
illuminate and explain the age-old questions of cognitive psychology.  This 
book is broken down into parts, chapters, and subchapters, so it is easy to 
read in bits and pieces, enabling a reader to focus on areas of particular 
interest.  Includes reference list, and separate name and subject indexes.

Dreyfus, Hubert L.  Mind Over Machine: The Power of Human Intuition and 
Expertise in the Era of the Computer.  New York: Free Press, 1986.  (BRI 
1985-92 Cumulation)

	I was unable to obtain a copy of this book; however, based on my 
research, I believe it belongs in this bibliography.  Reviews state that 
Dreyfus is an archcritic of AI, who in this book discusses the nature of 
human intuition and perception, and argues that these are uniquely human 
attributes which can never be reproduced in a machine.  Dreyfus is a 
respected contributor to the field, and I suggest pursuing this book.

Penrose, Roger,  The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, 
and the Laws of Physics.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.  (BRI 
1985-92 Cumulation, BRD 1990)

	Roger Penrose is one of the world's leading authorities in 
mathematical physics and contributes greatly to the philosophy of mind 
based on his knowledge.  Although directed at the layperson, this book can 
be very difficult to read because of the technical arguments and 
mathematical formulae it often employs.  However, Penrose himself 
suggests at the beginning that though he would like the reader to give 
them at least a cursory glance, if they are too overwhelming they can be 
safely ignored.  Penrose is a very strong opponent of AI and attempts to 
prove that quantum physics eventually reaches a void in which certain 
things cannot be known.  He argues that something deeper is necessary to 
understand the workings of the human mind and that there are facets of 
the mind that can never be replicated by a computer.  He supports 
Einstein's statement that his "little finger" told him that quantum physics 
was incomplete, and his own little finger "tells him that the human mind 
is more than just a collection of tiny wires and switches"(vii).  The title 
of the book is a play on the children's story, "The Emporer's New Clothes," 
with Penrose asserting that the proponents of AI are, like the emperor in 
the story, wearing no clothes.  As already stated, this book is a 
challenging read; however, it is necessary for an understanding of the 
current mind/body debate, especially as it applies to the future of AI.  
Includes a reference list and a name and subject index.

Dennett, Daniel C.  Consciousness Explained.  Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 
1991.  (BRI 1985-92 Cumulation, BRD 1992)

	Dennett is another of today's leading philosophers of the mind, 
respected, if not always agreed with by his peers.  Dennett is strongly in 
favor of AI, but has great respect for colleagues, like Penrose, who take 
opposing views.  He takes great delight in proposing new views, even if 
they ultimately prove to be wrong, in hopes that they will lead to future 
research and clarification of the issues.  Dennett is a prolific and easy-
to-read author.  Two prior books, Content and Consciousness (1969) and 
Brainstorms (1981), also deal with the mind/body problem but are not 
listed in this bibliography because Consciousness Explained represents the 
most recent refinements of his theories and is specifically aimed at AI.  
He discusses clearly and thoroughly the problems facing AI, such as 
language and brain structure, believing that Cartesianism must be 
abandoned because the brain is a "computerlike machine, hard-wired in 
some areas and programmable in others"(book jacket).  Dennett is a clear 
and masterful writer whose arguments are readily understood even by the 
novice in philosophy or psychology.  He provides necessary reading to 
grasp the current mind/body debate.  This book includes separate 
appendixes addressed to sceintists and philosophers, containing more 
technical arguments, an extensive bibliography, and a name and subject 

Sperry, Roger W.  "The Riddle of Consciousness and the Changing Scientific 
Worldview."  Journal of Humanistic Psychology 35.2 (1995): 7-33.

	Sperry is another of the world's foremost brain researchers and 
philosophers.  In this article he asserts that there has recently been a 
fundamental change in the philosophy of mind but that there is a lack of 
consensus about what precisely that change has been or where it is going.  
He argues for adherence to cognitivism with its affirmation of subjective 
causality (see Nagel), and asserts that such affirmation verifies that 
existence is impossible separate from the brain since mental states are 
emergent properties of brain processes.  He provides an excellent synopsis 
of the changes in the philosophy of mind and cognitive science during the 
past twenty years.  Includes an extensive bibliography.

Sperry, Roger, W.  "The Impact and Promise of the Cognitive Revolution."  
American Psychologist 48 (1993): 878-885.

	This article is included because it is a briefer version of Sperry's 
1995 article.  It is an edited version of an address presented at the 99th 
Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, San 
Fransisco, August 1991.  All of Sperry's salient points are addressed, and 
it is to this article that the following rebuttals are addressed.

Hergenhahn, B. R.. "Psychology's Cognitive Revolution";  Morf, Martin E.  
"Sperry's Leap";  Sampson, Edward E.  "Sperry's Cognitive Revolution";  
Holdstock, T. Len.  "Is the Cognitive Revolution All it is Made Out to Be?"  
American Psychologist 49 (1994): 816-820.

	These are included because they are rebuttals to Sperry's "Impact 
and Promise of the Cognitive Revolution."  They raise questions left 
unanswered by Sperry and suggest possible future issues in the mind/body 
problem.  They should be read to gain an understanding of the most current 
questions in the area, and to learn what the newest thinkers are 

Turing, Alan M.  "Computing Machinery and Intelligence."  Mind 59 (1950): 

	This article is included because it marks a turning point in the 
history of computing and is cited in virtually every important work 
addressing the mind/body problem as it relates to AI.  Turing is generally 
considered the pioneer computer theorist and proposed the possibility that 
computers could think as early as the 1930's.  He demonstrated that a 
binary code would make it possible to devise and execute an indefinite 
number of programs and that machines operating on this principle could be 
built.  This article suggests that it is possible to so program a machine 
that it would be impossible to discriminate its answers from those of a 
living human being -- a test now famously known as the "Turing Machine 
Test."  If an observer cannot tell the difference between the responses of 
the machine and a human being, then the machine has passed the Turing 
test.  The Turing test is still used as a basis for testing such machines.  
This article is absolutely necessary to understand the beginnings of AI and 
is one of the key articles in this bibliography. 

Hooker, Cliff, and Bruce Penfield.  "Artificial versus Natural Intelligence: 
What Role for the Brain?"  Search 26 (1995): 281-284.

	Hooker is Professor of Philosophy and Penfield a specialist in 
electrical and computer engineering, demonstrating that differing 
disciplines are beginning to work together towards the advancement of AI.  
They state that AI as it exists now will never produce any complex 
"intellect," and suggest that neural nets can be a way of achieving a truer 
AI.  They also suggest that such a move will help increase our 
understanding of the brain.  This article is included to give the student an 
appreciation of the most current thoughts and issues in AI, and to 
encourage specualtion of the new directions possible as a result of the 
overlap of disciplines.

Hayes-Roth, Frederick.  "Knowledge Systems: An Introduction."  Library Hi-
Tech (Issue 37-38) 10.1-2 (1992): 15-29.

	This article is included because it describes the difference between 
expert, or knowledge systems, and conventional programs in a way that is 
comprehensible to the person with little understanding of how computers 
work.  It includes several diagrams and charts to help clarify the text.  A 
basic understanding of expert systems is necessary to comprehend its 
application in the library, and Hayes-Roth does a very good job of 
explaining them.  The article is well-documented and is strongly 

Corbett, Dan.  Sidebar: "Natural Language Processing."  Library Hi-Tech 
(Issue 37-38) 10.1-2 (1992): 112.

	The problems facing natural language processing are a central issue 
to AI, and this short, easy-to-understand sidebar illuminates those 
problems.  It is included for those who have no knowledge of the problem 
and wish to be introduced to it.  Corbett makes some suggestions for 
overcoming the ambiguity of language, but recognizes that many problems 
remain.  He concludes, however, that a natural language program can be 
very useful, with progress in the area.  

Sparck Jones, Karen.  "The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Information 
Retrieval."  Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42 
(1991): 558-565.

	Sparck Jones is gaining recognition both in the fields of philosophy 
of mind as it relates to AI and the information sciences.  She is included 
in this bibliography to relate the importance of AI, and thus the mind/body 
problem, to libraries.  In this article she presents her view of the place 
for AI in information retrieval.  She argues that AI does have a place in 
the library, but only a limited place.  The article is pertinent to library 
students because of her illumination of the role of AI in libraries, which 
clarifies the role of the librarian.

Horton Jr., Forest Woody.  "Some Speculations on Knowing, Learning, and 
Artificial Intelligence."  International Forum on Information and 
Documentation 20.1 (1995): 8-15.

	I have been unable to find authority for Horton other than that he is 
Vice-President of the Forum on Information and Documentation, but this 
position indicates a reasonable amount of knowledge and experience which 
can be useful to this topic.  He states that this article is meant to be 
provocative, which it is, in the hopes that researchers will pursue some of 
his speculations.  He asserts that the library and information community 
should be brought into the dialogue about AI, a logical request since 
libraries are where much AI is being applied.  Recommend reading this 
article in the hopes that library students will become more attentive to 
and perhaps more involved in the dialogue, making their own contributions 
to the debate in the future.

Su, Shiao-Feng, and F.W. Lancaster.  "Evaluation of Expert Systems in 
Reference Service Applications."  RQ 35 (1995): 219-228.

	This article describes an assessment of the effectiveness of two 
expert systems,  Source Finder and Reference Expert, reference sources as 
measured against standards set by skilled reference librarians.  The study 
is well-documented, the conclusion being that these expert systems are 
less "expert" than skilled reference librarians.  The conclusion is less 
important than the questions it raises: if expert systems are less reliable 
than skilled librarians, then how can they be improved?  Recommend 
reading this article for its look at the practical use of AI in libraries and 
its demonstration of how information specialists can contribute to the 

Roszak, Theodore.  The Cult of Information: A Neo-Luddite Treatise on 
High-Tech, Artificial Intelligence, and the True Art of Thinking.  2nd Ed.  
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.  (BRI 1995)

	I discovered this book late in the process of researching this 
bibliography and was unable to obtain a copy before completion; however, I 
did find a review by Pamela Cobb (Journal of the American Society for 
Information Science 47 (1996): 251-2) that was intriguing enough to 
include this book.  She states that Roszak asserts that humanity will fall 
victim to the evils of technology, providing the worst examples of the 
abuses of technology he could find.  The most interesting point she raises 
is that Roszak specifically addresses libraries, idealizing them, and is a 
supporter of the "use of electonic apparatus in this environment."  He sees 
librarians as protectors, guides, and guardians for the unsuspecting public 
-- an interesting idea for the role of the librarian!  Although the book is a 
lambaste against technology, Cobb asserts that we should take heed of his 
warnings.  This book may be worth looking into for that reason.

Thinking Allowed Productions.  Videocassette.  Does Mind Matter?  With U. 
G. Krishnamurti, Julian Isaacs, John R. Searle, Ole Nydahl, Arthur Blocke 
and Jeffrey Mishlove.  Thinking Allowed, Q294, 1988.

	Though I allowed five weeks for delivery of this videocassette, I 
was unable to obtain a copy through Interlibrary Loan.  I am including it 
for those students who prefer an audiovisual style of learning.  It is 
included primarily for the discussion by Searle (of the Chinese Room -- 
see Gardner), but biographical sketches of the other contributors suggest 
that they may also be of interest.

Thinking Allowed Productions.  Videocassette.  Does Mind Matter?  With 
Theodore Roszak, Howard Rheingold, Hubert Dreyfus and William Whitson.  
Thinking Allowed, 1987.

	Like the previous entry, I was unable to obtain a copy of this 
videocassette, but am including it for the audiovisual learner.  Roszak and 
Dreyfus are listed elsewhere in this bibliography, but the other 
contributors may also be interesting.

Penrose, Roger.  Videocassette.  Shadows of the Mind: Consciousness, 
Computation. and the New Physics of the Mind.  NIST colloquium series.  

	I came across this videocassette very late in my research and have 
no other information about how to obtain it than that listed in the entry; 
however, I am including it because the audiovisual learner who is very 
interested should be able to locate it.  Penrose (listed elsewhere in this 
bibliography) discusses his theories of the mind and how they relate to AI.  

Lancaster, F. W., and Linda Smith, eds.  Artificial Intelligence and Expert 
Systems: Will They Change the Library?  Clinic on Library Applications of 
Data Processing.  Urbana-Champaign, 1990: Graduate School of Library and 
Information Science, 1992.  (BRI 1993)

	This bibliography closes with this book because it looks at how AI 
and expert systems are being applied in libraries, by people who actually 
use them.  It is intended to "tie-up" the seemingly evasive relationship 
that exists between the mind/body dichotomy and library and information 
science, for the applications that library and information specialists use 
in their daily work do have their roots in the debate begun with the 
specualtions of Descartes.  The book is a series of papers by librarians, 
psychologists, and computer engineers, all involved in some way in the 
information fields.  Their papers address AI and expert systems as applied 
in various library operations, such as reference, cataloging, natural 
language usage, etc.  It is one of the key works in this bibliography 
because it shows clearly the connection between philosophy of mind and 
libraries.  It represents the latest experiences and questions raised by 
information professionals about the applications of AI, which will have an 
impact on future research.  Each article has a reference list, and there are 
summary biographies of each contributor at the end of the book.