"Webliography" LI 804 Bibliography Project

Animal-Assisted Therapy:

An Annotated Bibliography

Carol S. Luallin
Emporia State University
Theory of Organization of Information
May 10, 1996
Prof.'s Brian and Mary O'Connor

		My bibliography topic is on people's relationships with 
animals, which was narrowed down to animal-assisted therapy 
programs (also referred to as pet-assisted therapy, human-companion 
animal bond programs, pet visitation programs, or pet facilitated 
therapy).  My bibliography focuses on the theory and research involved 
in establishing and maintaining such a program, the construction of 
veterinarians' knowledge, and the success of these programs as 
reported in the popular culture.  This bibliography does not attempt to 
address any ethical issues pertaining to animal or environmental 
rights, or the emotional aspects and impacts of losing a pet, but 
merely to show how animals are, and can be, used in a therapeutic 
environment to aid in people's rehabilitation.  The bulk of the 
research presented here deals specifically with dogs used in animal-
assisted therapy programs.  However, I have attempted to include 
other works that use other animals, such as cats, horses, and dolphins 
as well.


	This bibliography has been geared for three users:  the 
professional information provider who may be asked by medical 
personnel about the feasibility and availability of animal-assisted 
therapy programs in the community; the health care provider who 
wants to know how to implement such a program; and the health care 
consumer who is considering an alternative therapeutic approach to a 
traditional rehabilitation program for a loved one.


	I have divided my bibliography into five sections:

I.  Research and background on animal-assisted therapy programs.  
The criteria used for research presented in this section was date, 
number of citations mentioned, type of journal, and author's 
credentials (medical or research background).  I used the cut-off date 
of 1990 since most medical professionals and patrons are interested 
in reviewing current information. I selected research conducted by 
medical professionals which was subsequently published in a 
credible, professional medical journal.

II.  Research and background on the construction of veterinary 
knowledge. The criteria for this section is the same as above, with 
one additional factor:  I looked for articles that dealt primarily with 
animal-assisted therapy research, written by veterinarians.

III.  Popular culture.  The items in this section were chosen because 
they documented recent (from 1990 on) stories of people in various 
pet-assisted therapy programs.  I felt this section was crucial to 
include because it typifies how information is disseminated to the 
general public from the researchers.  I selected articles for this 
section based on the content of the article--any references to 
researchers, studies, institutions, or organizations that assist with 
and promote animal-assisted therapy programs.

IV.  Resources that promote and support pet-assisted therapy 
programs. Organizations listed in this section were selected because 
of their accessibility (by mail, telephone, fax, e-mail or community 
outreach programs) to the public and ability to offer additional 
information upon request.

V.  Additional information.  This section contains information that I 
felt would still be of use to the users listed above, but was excluded 
from the bibliography for various reasons.  Works mentioned in this section
are still extensive in their coverage of animal-assisted therapy programs
but were eliminated from inclusion in the regular bibliography because they were either published prior to 1990, not found on library shelves, or in the case of videos and newsletters were unavailable for review and analysis because of ordering costs and time constraints. I also found a new book that was in the process of being catalogued by Colorado State University
and was not available for review. Annotation Information My annotations conform to the examples listed in the American Psychological Association's Publication Manual, 4th Edition (1995): author(s), year of publication, title, publisher, and publication information. For quick reference, all entries have been alphabetized by the author's last name, rather than being listed by format--book, journal, video, web-site, etc.--however, the format of each entry is mentioned in the body of the annotation. Also included are brief abstracts of the work being evaluated, authority of author (his/her credentials and background information, if available), inclusion rationale, level of detail, and intended user. If available, additional information on ordering material is included at the end of the bibliography. It is intended that this bibliography give the professional information provider a fairly in-depth overview of pet- assisted therapy programs in order to assist future clients with their information searches pertaining to alternative forms of therapy. Search Information This section chronicles my strategies used in seeking information: key word search terms, databases searched, libraries visited, on-line web sites investigated, materials received in the mail for evaluation, interviews conducted, and experiences with other professional information providers during the course of my research. I began my preliminary search in the Denver Public Library on-line card catalog database, using various key word terms such as "bonding, human-pet," "pets + social aspects," "animal assisted therapy," "pet assisted therapy," "human-animal bond," "human + animal + bonding," "human-animal relationships," and "dogs + therapeutic use." (It should be noted that these key word strings were used in all other database searches as well). I referred to the subject headings for each entry that I obtained and was cross-referenced to many of the above mentioned terms. Using the terms "pet therapy" and "animal therapy" did not result in any useful hits, but rather information on how to massage an animal or different therapies available to injured animals. I began my search in the Magazine Index, Magazine Index Plus, and Health Index databases both at Denver Public Library, in Denver, CO, and Koelbel Public Library in Littleton, CO. When an item was unavailable, I used the "owners" option to find out which other libraries on the CARL system had the item. I was referred to, and physically visited, Morgan Library at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado, Denison Memorial Library at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center in Denver, Colorado. While at the CSU and Denison libraries, I searched several of their specialized databases. At Denison Library I was initially denied access to many databases because they were password protected and available only to medical staff and students. However, after much time and frustration spent searching the remaining public access databases, I was permitted access to one of Denison's medical databases, Ovid, by an employee, resulting in many useful hits. Had I not been granted access to this database, my search would have been futile. At CSU's library, I searched CAB Abstracts, VetCD, Agricola, and Zoological Records databases with the expert assistance of two reference librarians. I was able to find many good references here, too. Please note that because the bulk of my information came from medical journals and publications, there were no formal reviews available for any of the bibliographic entries. Looking for current information, I browsed the Internet using the key word terms previously mentioned and used the Lycos and AltaVista search engines. This on-line search strategy was not a good method and resulted in too much useless information. However, once I had the names of several specific organizations to look for, I was able to narrow my search considerably and find pertinent information. With this information I was able to e-mail an organization to request additional materials be sent to my home for further evaluation. I conducted interviews with a research veterinarian, the director of therapeutic programs at a nationally known rehabilitation hospital, and a pet visitation specialist with the Denver Dumb Friends League. These interviews provided me the opportunity to cite examples of actual animal-assisted therapy programs currently in place in different institutions. Bibliography and Annotations I. Research and background on pet-assisted therapy programs. Fick, Katharine M. (1993). The influence of an animal on social interactions of nursing home residents in a group setting. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 47. 529-534. "This study was conducted to determine the effect of the presence and absence of a dog on the frequency and types of social interactions among nursing home residents during a socialization group. Point sampling was used to evaluate the behaviors of 36 male nursing home residents at a Veterans Administration Medical Center under two conditions, Dog Present and Dog Absent. [The findings presented in this scientific study] are consistent with existing literature, thus providing further evidence of the value of Animal Assisted Therapy programs as an effective medium for increasing socialization among residents in long-term care facilities. Because an increase in social interactions can improve the social climate of an institution and occupational therapists frequently incorporate group process into their treatment, the therapeutic use of animals can become a valuable adjunct to reaching treatment goals" [quoted from above source]. This journal article is technical in nature and discusses the study from a scientific standpoint. Intended user is a medical researcher. Haggar, Veronica, RGN, DipN. (1992, October 28). Good Companions. Nursing Times, 88, 54-55. Written by a primary nurse in care of the elderly at St. Pancras Hospital in London, Ms. Haggar discusses evidence from the medical literature and her own experience of the benefits and drawbacks of introducing pets into the ward. Many excellent references to previous studies, ranging from 1980 to 1991 are listed at the end of the journal article. Intended user is a health care provider. Hatfield, Pam. Pet Visitation Specialist, Denver Dumb Friends League, Denver, CO. 303/671-5212. Telephone interview. (Reprinted with permission from Denver Dumb Friends League.) The League's concern and commitment to pet visitation began in 1982 when the Pet Facilitated Therapy Program (PFT) was implemented to provide human/animal interaction to people who were living in confined settings such as nursing homes, psychiatric hospitals and care centers, rehabilitation hospitals and facilities, handicapped and disabled patient care centers, and assisted living homes. While the goals of the program have remained the same, the Pet Facilitated Therapy Program evolved into the current Pet Visitation Program (PVP). Initially League volunteers took animals from the shelters for these visits; however, with the change to the Pet Visitation Program, volunteers take their own animals on these visits. This allows League animals to remain at the shelter, thus their chances for adoption are not reduced and allows League staff to temperament test all visitation animals, providing assurance that a PVP animal's behavior is appropriate for these special settings. Objectives of the PVP Program include providing pet companionship to people living in confined settings, bringing people comfort, joy, and emotional satisfaction through pet visitation, and offering patients the physical benefits of pet companionship such as reduced blood pressure, reduction of agitation and stress, and eliciting response from unresponsive patients. Currently the League's PVP Program is working with 88 facilities. We are actively visiting 43 of these facilities, while another 45 remain on our waiting list. To date almost 2,000 hours have been donated, and 13,782 patient contact have been made by program volunteers. Our Pet Visitation Program and volunteers are enthusiastically received by facility managers and patients/residents. The support of facilities and patients we visit, and the number of facilities on our waiting list, clearly demonstrates to us a true need for this special program. Each facility is visited once or twice a month. PVP volunteers bring their own pets and either go room to room or spend time with patients in a central location. Some facilities have activity directors on staff who work closely with our PVP volunteers and some facilities rely solely on PVP volunteers to determine the best course of action. Both PVP volunteers and their pets receive training through the League. Visitation pets must pass a temperament test conducted by our Behavior Department to determine if the animal's behavior is appropriate for the specific facilities visited through this program. PVP volunteers are required to attend a half day volunteer orientation, a full-day training session, and participate in specific PVP training. The wet kiss of a warm puppy or the soft fur of a purring kitten can produce words from those who refuse to speak, laughter from those who cry, and smiles from those who have forgotten how. These and much more are the benefits by a visit from a Pet Visitation Program volunteer and pet. Perelle, Ira B. and Granville, Diane A. (1991). Assessment of the effectiveness of a pet facilitated therapy program in a nursing home setting [On-line]. Available: http://www.envirolink.org/arrs/psyeta/sa/sa1.1/perelle.html "In the past twenty years Pet Facilitated Therapy (PFT) has been used, apparently successfully, with several populations, including nursing home residents. Studies report positive behavior changes as a result of PFT intervention, but little effort has been made to quantify such behavior changes. This study presents the results of a PFT program in a nursing home setting [with 53 residents]. Results were positive, and were measured using the Patient Social Behavior Scale, designed for this study" [quoted from the above study]. This lengthy, detailed, scientific study, suitable for use by a medical researcher, analyzes the data by breaking it down into tables, and examines anecdotal accounts of individual's behavior. On the whole, the results of this program were positive. Many excellent references to older pet-facilitated program studies (prior to 1990) are included at the end of this on-line web site study. The primary author of this study, Mr. Perelle, has also included his address for correspondence. II. Research and background on the construction of veterinary knowledge with relationship to pet-assisted therapy programs. Veterinary Information Network--VIN [On-line]. (1996). Available: http://www.mother.com/~vin/Welcome.html This subscription-based web site for veterinarians--whether staff, students, researchers--offers many links. The best link is to the Vet to Vet on VIN message boards (available URL: http://www.mother.com/~vin/vetbrd.htm) which are among VIN's most popular features. "The interactive message boards enable users to discuss topics from internal medicine cases, to orthopedic surgery consultations, to ways to just relieve stress. Other boards include the Industry Connection, Associations and Foundations, and Questions to Vets from the Pet Care Forum. However, the Vet to Vet board is the most popular" [quoted from above web site]. This web page offers 48 message boards for the veterinarian to choose from. Veterinarians would find this well designed web site extremely useful for exchanging ideas and sharing research information. Again, because this is a subscription-based web site intended for use by veterinarians, the general public's access is limited to only sample message boards. However, the general public can purchase a subscription on a 30 day trial basis. Rates are given for both VIN members and non-members. Campbell, Terry, DVM. Associate Professor of Zoological Medicine, Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Fort Collins, Colorado. 970/221-4535. Telephone interview. Dr. Campbell is new to the staff at CSU, having come here from Sea World in Orlando, Florida where he worked with their avian-exotic department and with killer whales. Dr. Campbell's responsibilities as Associate Professor include spending 60% of his time on the clinical floor dealing with clinical cases, and the remaining 40% of his time doing didactic teaching, research and publication. As a research veterinarian at a teaching hospital, Dr. Campbell often sees cases that have been referred to him by other veterinarians who feel a particular case is out of their league. If a case turns out to be unusual, he will document it and wait for other cases of the same type to come along. However, if there appears to be a recurring pattern in several cases, he will accumulate a number of cases for submission to a veterinary journal for review and publication. He regularly consults with other veterinarians at academic institutions, zoos, and in private practice. Dr. Campbell consults a number of sources for information--veterinary journals, other veterinarians, and sometimes human medical literature. As part of the knowledge cycle and the dissemination/diffusion of new knowledge, research veterinarians play a key role. Glickman, Larry T., VMD, DrPH. (1992). Implications of the human/animal bond for human health and veterinary practice. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 201, 848-851. "The major impact of companion animals on public health has often been considered in a negative context by physicians, public health professionals, and even veterinary educators and practitioners. For example, veterinary schools devote part of their curriculum to diseases communicable from pets to people, problems associated with animal waste, and fatal attacks by dogs and ferrets. Only recently, however, have veterinarians focused on positive aspects of companion animals in an to explain what has been taken for granted for so long...that is, that companion animals are good for people and their health. [This article] attempt[s] to put the role of companion animals into perspective and to highlight some recently recognized contributions of pets to public health" [quoted from above source]. Written primarily for the veterinarian researcher or practitioner, Mr. Glickman includes a lengthy bibliography at the end of his journal article. Lawrence, Elizabeth Atwood, VMD, PhD. (1994). Love for animals and the veterinary profession. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 205(7), 970-972. The dichotomy of love and science is being re-examined in the role of the veterinarian. "Veterinarians, in their role of mediating between human beings and the animal world, are in a unique position to foster and facilitate the expression" of "thinking about the interrelatedness of human beings and animals." The importance of animals to society is seen in the fact that "people are increasingly looking to veterinarians for knowledge and advice concerning a wide range of issues relating to animals, wild or domesticated" [quotes from above source]. Dr. Lawrence is a Professor of Environmental Studies at Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine at North Grafton, Ma. She has included her address for correspondence as well as a brief list of references at the end of her journal article. Written primarily for the veterinary researcher or practitioner. III. Examples in Popular Culture of Pet-Assisted Therapies. Burke, Sarah. (1992, February 24). In the presence of animals: Health professionals no longer scoff at the therapeutic effects of pets. U. S. News and World Report, 112, 64-65. "The exact mechanisms by which animals exert their effects upon health and well-being are still largely mysterious. But the growing body of evidence that pets do make a difference has spawned a variety of organizations eager to further research and create service programs
involving animals" [quoted from above source]. This brief periodical article details two examples of children involved in an organized pet- assisted therapy program--one, a four year old born addicted to crack and a thirteen year old with behavioral problems who is involved with a working farm and wildlife rehabilitation center. Written for the general public, scientists offer their insight as to why these types of programs are effective. Organizations that facilitate pet-assisted therapy programs are mentioned. Golin, Mark and Walsh, Therese. (1994, December). Heal emotions with fur, feathers and love. Prevention, 46, 80-83. "Animal-assisted therapy is used [at the Green Chimneys Children's Services in Brewster, New York] as a starting point to get children to open up" [quoted from above source]. This short periodical article, written for the general public, cites researchers' names, institutions, and studies as well as providing an address and phone number for an animal-assisted therapy program organizer, the Delta Society. Livermore, Beth. (1991, March-April). Water wings: swimming with dolphins may be the boost special kids need. Sea Frontiers, 37, 44-55. "Because dolphins seem to enjoy spontaneous, nonverbal play and have a reputation for being both gentle and attentive, some therapists believe these animals may be able to help them reach and motivate otherwise unresponsive people" [quoted from above source]. Many types of disabled people have participated in swim-with-dolphin programs--disabilities such as severe autism, cerebral palsy, retardation, spinal cord injuries and clinical depression. This periodical article is beneficial to the general public in that it refers to several researchers and their findings on results of animal- assisted therapies. It does not provide a list of references or phone numbers for contact. McDonald, Paula. (1996, April). The boy who talked with dolphins. Reader's Digest, 148, 82-87. This periodical article, based on real life, details a boy's struggle with learning disabilities, partial hearing loss, poor coordination and low self-esteem. His interactions with dolphins at a local marine park brings about significant changes and improvement in his condition. Written for the general public. Monson, Nancy. (1995, February). How your pet helps your health: cuddling with Kitty or playing with Fido can help lower your risk of disease. Vegetarian Times, 210, 96-99. Mounting research shows that interacting with animals can improve your overall physical and mental health. People often respond to animals in ways they never would to humans. This brief periodical article was written for the general public. IV. Resources: where to find information on animal-assisted therapy programs and how to start your own. Andrews, Sam. Director of Therapeutic Recreation Department, Craig Rehabilitation Hospital, Englewood, Colorado. 303/789-8290. Telephone interview. Sam Andrews has been director of Craig Hospital's Therapeutic Recreation Department for 22 years. Craig is a nationally known rehabilitation hospital for people with brain, spinal, and neurological injuries. The hospital first began a pet-assisted therapy program at the insistence of a recreation therapist who had seen its positive effect in other settings. He sought out the Denver Dumb Friends League, an animal adoption agency, and worked with them to establish a visiting pet program. The staff and administration at Craig were very amenable to the idea, too. The animal-assisted therapy has been directly responsible for a number of changes in patients' behaviors and attitudes--patients are more motivated to finish physical therapy sessions and try things on their own when a pet is waiting to visit them. A visit by an animal breaks up the routine of the day, gets the patient's mind off of his/her situation, encourages longer attention spans, and is incentive for a patient to be more interactive. The sessions with the animals also provide additional contact with other people--the animals' handlers. Craig Hospital's primary focus in participating in animal-assisted therapies is to make the rehabilitation environment a more person-to-person environment, rather than a staff-to-patient environment. Over the years, Craig Hospital has been visited by various breeds of dogs and cats, one python, a spider, reptiles and numerous fish. Bredenburg, Dave. (1990, May). Developing a companion animal program. Nursing Homes and Senior Citizen Care, 39, 21-25. This journal article offers yet another insight to a companion animal program. While it gives background information on why and how the Episcopal Church Home began their program, the most useful information, Guidelines for Providing Companion Animals and Advantages to a Companion Animal Program, is found at the end of the article. The guidelines section addresses issues such as considering the cost of animals and veterinary care, and animal care procedures. The advantages to such a program are also presented. Therapists desiring to start their own companion animal program would benefit from this article. Center to study human-animal relationships and environments-- CENSHARE [On-line]. (1996). Available: http://www.social.com/health/nhic/data/hr2000/hr2057.html "The Center to Study Human-Animal Relationships and Environments (CENSHARE) conducts research and disseminates information on human-animal relationships and their effects on human well-being. It initiates and coordinates research, disseminates data and materials, serves as a regional clearinghouse, and helps develop courses and programs. CENSHARE has published the proceedings of a conference on the human-animal bond. Serial publication: Newsletter" [quoted from above web site]. Although no links to other sites are offered, this web site would be a good starting point for health care providers and the general public who desire more information on the human-animal bond experience. Additional information may also be obtained from: Director P.O. Box 734, Mayo Memorial Building 420 Delaware Street, SE Minneapolis, MN 55455 612/624-5909 Cole, Kathie M., RN, MN, CCRN and Gawlinski, Anna, RN, DNSc, CS, CCRN. (1995, September). Animal-assisted therapy in the intensive care unit: a staff nurse's dream comes true. Nursing Clinics of North America, 30, 529-537. "This article presents an example of how one staff nurse was able to implement change in clinical practice based on the basis of research. After reviewing the literature on animal-assisted therapy, [she] was able to implement this therapy for critically ill patients and families. Patient satisfaction surveys indicate that patients have benefited from this change. Patients report feelings of increased happiness, calmness, more feelings of love, and less loneliness. This example shows how staff nurses, a highly motivated and knowledgeable group, provide a fertile arena for bridging the research-practice gap" [quoted from above source]. This study, presented in a medical journal, was based upon previous studies and lists, in detail, protocol for volunteer handlers/dog visits, as well as patient inclusion and exclusion criteria. The article, written for the medical community, is fairly detailed, scientific in writing, presented from a clinical nurse's point of view, and lists references to other studies. Davis, Kathy Diamond. (1992). Therapy dogs: training your dog to reach others. New York: Howell Book House. This book is written primarily for the therapist and/or dog-handler who wishes to participate in an animal-assisted therapy program. The book begins with a chapter on the benefits that therapy dogs provide, and progresses through dog selection, training and controlling. The handler's job and how to conduct visits are thoroughly covered. The book's index is detailed, which makes this illustrated book an easy guide to use. However, as the title implies, this book pertains only to dogs. The DELTA Society: Brief history, accomplishments, overview of programs [On-line]. (1996, February 8). Available: Available e-mail: 74403.1730@compuserve.com [Focusing on overview of current programs] "Delta Society's current programs implement the mission of incorporating pets into the lives of people who are ill to improve healing (Pet Partner Program and Animal-Assisted Therapy Services); into the lives of people who are disabled to improve independence (National Service Dog Center); and into the lives of the general population to improve health (People and Pets activities)" [quoted from above source]. This web site offers extensive information on their history, accomplishments, Pet Partners Programs, National Service Dog Center, and other topics. Although rich in information content, the only link available is to Delta Society's e-mail address. Additional information may also be obtained from: The DELTA Society P.O. Box 1080 Renton, WA 98057-9906 1-800-869-6898 206/235-1076 Fax 74403.1730@compuserve.com E-mail Engel, Barbara Teichmann, Med, OTR (Ed.). (1992). Therapeutic Riding Programs: Instruction and Rehabilitation. A Handbook for Instructors and Therapists. Durango, CO: Barbara Engel Therapy Services. Therapeutic riding is defined as equal parts education, medicine and sport. This lengthy, 640 page book, written by a therapeutic riding instructor and therapist, looks at therapeutic riding from the therapist's, disabled rider's, and riding instructor's points of view. Proper riding techniques, equipment, how to volunteer or assist during a riding session, training/schooling of the therapeutic riding horse, normal and abnormal human behavior, and patients' disabilities encountered are just some of the many topics addresses. Included in this exhaustive, extensive work are a glossary, illustrations, tables, definitions of terms, and a bibliography. References include videos, suggested contacts, associations, agencies, and resources for tack, equipment, books and clothing. This book is best suited for therapeutic riding instructors or patients who are seriously considering participating in equine therapy. The Latham Foundation [On-line]. (1996). Available: http://www.latham.org/hcab.html "The Latham Foundation is a national, nonprofit organization promoting respect for all life through education. [It] is a clearing house for information about...the human companion animal bond, animal assisted therapy, a source for affordable videos and publications and the publisher of the Latham Letter" [quoted in part from the above source]. This web site offers additional links to sites for information on The Latham Letter and videos. The link to selected studies on the human/companion animal bond is quite detailed and lengthy. Although much of the Latham Foundation's material is for use by the general public, health care providers would also benefit from looking at this extensive web site. Additional information may also be obtained from: The Latham Foundation Latham Plaza Building 1826 Clement Avenue Alameda, CA 94501-9937 510/521-0920 510/521-9861 Fax Pet Visitation and Human-Animal Bond Program [On-line]. (1996). Available: http://roger.vet.uga.edu/petvisit.html "The College of Veterinary Medicine began a Pet-Visitation Program in 1984. The program utilizes volunteers from the College, University, and community to educate people of all ages about the human-animal bond and the importance of animals in our lives. The program also serves as an information center on other programs in Georgia and the United States" [quoted from above source]. This web site is very short and offers a different perspective on human-animal bond programs as provided by a veterinarian. Any health care provider or patient wanting more information on animal-assisted therapy programs in their area would benefit from this contact site. Additional information may also be obtained from: Dr. Doris Miller College of Veterinary Medicine Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory University of Georgia Agriculture Drive Athens, GA 30602-7383 706/542-5568 706/542-5977 Fax V. Additional information for consideration. Research and background on animal-assisted therapy programs Anonymous. (1994). The training of pets as therapy dogs in a women's prison: A pilot study. Anthrozoos, 7(2), 124-128. "Describes the Pets as Therapy (PAT) program, which was initiated in a women's prison to train companion dogs for the elderly and individuals with disabilities. The effect of the program on the general psychological and emotional well-being of the prisoners participating in the program was established" [quoted from above source]. I was unable to locate this journal on the shelf and personally review and analyze it. This work was important to mention because it is a fairly recent study and provides yet another example of how pets are used in various therapeutic settings with different groups of people--in this case, female prisoners. Barba, B. E. (1995, July). The positive influence of animals: animal-assisted therapy in acute care. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 9(4), 199-202. "Animal-assisted therapy is a therapeutic nursing intervention that brings animals together with persons with physical and/or emotional needs as a way of meeting those needs. It is based on the growing knowledge of benefits that animals provide to the sick, elderly, and isolated. A model for a responsible and outcome-oriented program in animal-assisted therapy in acute care settings is described in this article. Special areas include: types of therapy, specific treatment goals, patient and animal suitability, environmental considerations, and evaluation methods" [quoted from above source]. This journal article was unavailable for review and analysis when I visited the library. I included it because of its recent date of publication and because of the contents mentioned in the abstract. This article is worth further evaluation by a professional interested in establishing an animal-assisted therapy program. Behling, Robert James. (1991). Animal programs and animal- assisted therapy in skilled and intermediate care facilities in Illinois. Dissertation Abstracts International, 51 (07). (University Microfilms No. AAC 9033584). "Many authors have presented the viewpoint that animal programs such as animal visitations or resident animals are beneficial to the institutionalized elderly. This study is exploratory and descriptive of animal programs and animal assisted therapy in skilled and intermediate care facilities in Illinois. Data were collected using a self-administered mail questionnaire" [quoted from above source]. The study reports that overall long-term care professionals
"have very positive attitudes toward the utilization of animals in long-term
care." Of key importance in this study are discussions of written policy and
procedure, and animal selection and training. I was unable to obtain a copy of this dissertation through inter-library loan for review and analysis. Although this dissertation focuses on animal-assisted therapies in Illinois only, I chose to include it anyway based on the abstract. The abstract refers to written policy and procedure, which would be helpful information for any long-term care facilities considering such a program. Blake, Dorothy Sewell. (1980). On the introduction of pets for the institutionalized aging (Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University Teachers College, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International, 41(10), 3732. This dissertation was available only through inter-library loan, which did not arrive in time for me to review and analyze it. Although it is an older dissertation and falls before my publication cut-off date of 1990, I have included it because I feel it provides yet again another insight into research for health care providers on the effects of animals on another population group. Calvert, Melissa Morrison, RN, MSN. (1989). Human-pet interaction and loneliness: A test of concepts from Roy's Adaptation Model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 2, 194-202. "The following research question was posed in this study: To what extent does human-pet interaction influence the degree of loneliness among nursing home residents? This research used two key concepts from Roy's adaptation model of nursing to examine the relationship between human-pet interaction and loneliness in nursing home residents. These concepts included (a) environmental stimuli as factors influencing adaptation and (b) interdependence as a mode of response to the environment. The hypothesis of this study asserted that the residents of a nursing home who had greater levels of interaction with a pet program would experience less loneliness than those who had lower levels of interaction with a pet" [quoted from above source]. This scientific study, conducted by a nursing professional, was included because of the depth of analysis of the study. It is written more for the scientific researcher and includes 25 references to other studies and pieces of literature written from 1962-1988. This article and its references would be a good starting point for a researcher looking for in-depth studies of pet-assisted therapy programs in nursing homes. Research and background on veterinary knowledge Anonymous. (1992, October 1). Veterinary service market for companion animals 1992 part 1: Companion animal ownership and demographics. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association, 201(7), 990-992. I was unable to access the Colorado State University Veterinary Hospital Library where this periodical was located. Based upon reviews in the JAVMA journal, this book was included here because it looks at trends in companion animal ownership and populations from 1983 to 1992. Included in the book are illustrations and maps that detail geographic breakdowns of dog, cat, bird and horse populations; pet ownership profiled by key household demographics; and detailed statistics on veterinary medical visits, services and expenditures. This research report includes 130 data tables, charts and maps. Veterinary professionals interested in assessing the potential need for their services and in which geographic area would find this book invaluable. Popular culture Anonymous. (1996, Spring). Animals as teachers and healers: true stories and reflections. The Latham Letter, 17, 22. [This book] "presents a new consciousness about animals, and the gifts they have bestowed on their human companions. This book is a collection of such tales, in which people tell of the profound experiences they have had with a pet or wild animal that somehow touched their souls for a moment or for a lifetime....The author recounts her own successful battle with cancer and the role that animals have played in her healing and recovery" [quoted from The Latham Letter, 17, 22.] I found this book review in The Latham Letter and included it because of the author's credentials and the book's subject matter. Ms. McElroy is a writer who "has worked with animals all her life, as a veterinarian's assistant, dog trainer, wildlife rehabilitator and zookeeper." The forward to her book was written by Michael W. Fox, a veterinarian and employee of the Humane Society of the United States. Many other people wrote to McElroy to share their experiences with animals. Anyone who is curious about the role that animals have played in other people' lives would enjoy this book. This 180 page book is illustrated with photos and is available directly from the publisher at: New Sage Press P.O. Box 607 Troutdale, OR 97060-0607 503/695-2211 503/695-5406 Fax ISBN 0-939265-27-9 $12.95 paperback Resources: where to find information on animal-assisted therapy programs and how to start your own Abdill, Margaret (Ed.). (1992). Pets and older people: a guide for pet therapy programs. Willingboro, N.J.: Geriatric Educational Consultants. This book was found during a "pets-therapeutic use" key word search in Colorado State University's on-line card catalog database. I was unable to locate it on the shelf when I visited the library. Because of its recent date of publication, I would recommend this 56 page book to therapists interested in alternative geriatric therapies since the book is illustrated and has bibliographical references. Anonymous. (1996, January). The Latham Foundation: Videos available from the Latham Foundation for the promotion of humane education. Alameda, CA: The Latham Foundation. This video pamphlet, published quarterly, contains video titles produced by the Latham Foundation on HCAB--the human-companion animal bond. Videos identified with "HCAB document the mutually beneficial relationships between people and pets" [quoted from above source]. The seven video titles that follow were selected because they offer information about organizations or studies done on the human-companion animal bond. Although the list and description of these videos is lengthy, it is important to include the information here in order to assist the professional information provider in recommending an appropriate title for a user. These videos have been produced for viewing by various audiences and professions, noted in parentheses after each video abstract. I was unable to personally view each video because of the cost of renting the video ($10.00 per video per week prepaid), as well as the time-delay in shipping the videos to me. The abstract following each title is quoted directly from the Latham Foundation's January, 1996 Video pamphlet. Target audiences for each video are given in parentheses. Running times of each video were not available, except where noted. Ability, Not Disability--"This moving documentary visits the Cheff Center for the Handicapped near Battle Creek, Michigan where the physically and mentally challenged ride horses in a highly effective form of pet-facilitated therapy that provides exercise, improves coordination, and builds self-esteem. The video also explains the Center's highly-respected certification program for therapeutic riding instructors." (8th grade through adult; physical therapy, psychology, physical education, special education). Canine Companions for Independence--"CCI is a nonprofit organization that trains "signal dogs" for the hearing impaired, "service dogs" for the physically challenged, and "social dogs" for hospital visits. These highly trained dogs aid people with special needs, making them more independent, helping them enter the mainstream of society, and bringing them warmth and companionship." (8th grade through adult; psychology, vocational rehabilitation and occupational therapy). Dolphin Swim--"Explores the interactions that develop between humans and bottle nose dolphins at Dolphins Plus in the Florida Keys--first in a program for autistic children, then in a weekend workshop for adults." (8th grade through adult; psychology, special education). Just a Little Hope--"A man who suffered suicidal depression after surviving kidney failure, two unsuccessful kidney transplants, and three heart attacks, narrates this personal account of how a psychiatrist-prescribed dog remarkably changed his life." (8th grade through adult; psychology and medicine). P.A.C.T.--People and Animals Coming Together--"A documentary of a program begun by Dr. Dan Lago at State College Pennsylvania, where eight elderly people and companion animals are paired with volunteers who make home visits to help alleviate loneliness. The video shows that program in action, highlighting the benefits resulting from the three-way relationship." (8th grade through adult; geriatrics, psychology). Pet-Facilitated Therapy--"This update of "Hi Ya, Beautiful" focuses on a former patient at Lima State Hospital who participated in their unique pet- assisted therapy program. This video recounts his life and attitudes since release." (8th grade through adult; psychology and corrections). (The) Phenomenon of the Human/Companion Animal Bond--"A composite of "Just a Little Hope," "Ability, Not Disability," and "Hi Ya, Beautiful," this is one of the only videos of its kind exploring several
of the many beneficial aspects of the human/companion animal bond (26
minutes)." (8th grade through adult; social studies, psychology, medicine). Anonymous. (1995). The Latham Letter: Back Issue and Subject Index, 1987 - 1995. Alameda, CA: The Latham Foundation. The Latham Letter Back Issue and Subject Index is a compilation of articles that have appeared in the Latham Letter. The articles are arranged both by subject area and chronologically, beginning with Volume VIII (1987), which makes this an easy tool to use to examine and order back issues. Because of the cost involved to order each back issue ($2.50 each plus $3.00 for shipping and handling), I was unable to provide a detailed abstract for analysis by the user. I would still recommend these articles because of Latham's reputation in providing quality, reliable, up-to-date information on animal- assisted therapies and human-companion animal bonds. The title of the article is followed by the back issue date and volume number. In addition to the articles listed below, the Latham Letter also offers many other back issues on animal-assisted therapy topics. University Programs in Human/Animal Relationships Confirm Respect for HCAB--Spring 1995, Vol. XVI, No. 2. A Study of Nursing Homes Regarding Pet Visitation and Resident Pet Programs--Winter 1993-94, Vol. XV, No. 1. A Call for Professional Accreditation of Pet-Assisted Therapy Facilitators--Winter 1993-94, Vol. XV, No. 1. Beneficial Effects of Pet Ownership on Human Health--Summer 1993, Vol. XIV, No. 3. Description of a Pet Therapy Program in Canada--Fall 1993, Vol. XIV, No. 4. (A Special Issue on Animal Assisted Therapy)--Spring 1989. Vol. X, No. 2. Arkow, Phil. (1987). Loving bond: companion animals in the helping professions. Saratoga, CA: R and E Publishers, Inc. This book is older, but still contains much useful information for therapists looking to establish a companion animal program. Especially beneficial because of its detail and depth of coverage, is Appendix I. Appendix I contains resources such as a list of films, audio visual materials, overviews, anthologies and bibliographies. It also provides information on the human-animal bond: conferences and proceedings; guidebooks, models and demonstration projects; organizations (names, addresses, and phone numbers) for information and publicity, program certification and training; programs for long-term care facilities and the elderly; and scientific and research organizations. Appendix II is a research directory that supports human-companion animal bond studies by offering a subject guide to on-going research activities and human-companion animal bond studies. This illustrated book is well indexed and offers thorough coverage of many topics. Arkow, Phil. (1990). Pet therapy: a study and resource guide for the use of companion animals in selected therapies. (6th ed.). Colorado Springs, CO: Humane Society of the Pikes Peak Region. I was unable to locate this book on the shelves at the Colorado State University Morgan Library for review and analysis. I chose to include it anyway because of the author's credentials and recent publication date. Mr. Arkow is also editor for the Latham Foundation, a non-profit organization previously reviewed in this bibliography. This 196 page book is illustrated and contains an index and bibliography. Any health care provider considering an animal- assisted therapy program should read this book. Bernard, Shari. (1995). Animal assisted therapy: a guide for health care professionals and volunteers. Whitehouse, Texas: Therapet. This book was located during a "bonding, human-pet" key word search on the Colorado State University on-line card catalog database. The book had just been received by the CSU library and was currently being processed; therefore it was unavailable for review and analysis. Because of its recent publication date, I would recommend this illustrated, 121 page book to health care professionals and volunteers, as the title implies. Cusack, Odean and Smith, Elaine. (1984). Pets and the elderly: the therapeutic bond. New York: Haworth Press. Also published as Activities, adaptation and aging, 4, (2/3), 1984, this book begins with an introduction to animal-facilitated therapy and the human-animal bond. Chapters 5, 7, and 8 specifically deal with suggestions for therapists who are thinking of implementing an animal therapy program in an institution. Types of therapy that can be implemented using animals--speech, reminiscence, spiritual, occupational therapy, etc.--are discussed. Although this book was published in 1984, I included it because I felt the information contained in chapters 5, 7, and 8 was the most comprehensive in actually detailing how to manage a therapy program. Each chapter ends with bibliographic references. The 257 page book is indexed and contains illustrations. Conclusion My bibliography is by no means exhaustive. Rather, it should be used as a starting point for those individuals who wish to further explore the topic of animal-assisted therapy in greater depth. People that I interviewed were most gracious when answering my questions and expressed a real sense of caring in the work they were doing. Each extended the offer to "call me back if I can answer any more questions for you." Indeed, one individual called me back to offer still more information. Because of the amount of information that exists on animal-assisted therapy and the enthusiasm of the people I interviewed, it was difficult to end my information search. (Reprinted with permission from Denver Dumb Friends League.) The League's concern and commitment to pet visitation began in 1982 when the Pet Facilitated Therapy Program (PFT) was implemented to provide human/animal interaction to people who were living in confined settings such as nursing homes, psychiatric hospitals and care centers, rehabilitation hospitals and facilities, handicapped and disabled patient care centers, and assisted living homes. While the goals of the program have remained the same, the Pet Facilitated Therapy Program evolved into the current Pet Visitation Program (PVP). Initially League volunteers took animals from the shelters
for these visits; however, with the change to the Pet Visitation Program,
volunteers take their own animals on these visits. This allows
League animals to remain at the shelter, thus their chances for
adoption are not reduced and allows League staff to temperament test all visitation animals, providing assurance that a PVP animal's behavior is appropriate for these special settings. Objectives of the PVP Program include providing pet companionship to people living in confined settings, bringing people comfort, joy, and emotional satisfaction through pet visitation, and offering patients the physical benefits of pet companionship such as reduced blood pressure, reduction of agitation and stress, and eliciting response from unresponsive patients. Currently the League's PVP Program is working with 88 facilities. We are actively visiting 43 of these facilities, while another 45 remain on our waiting list. To date almost 2,000 hours have been donated, and 13,782 patient contact have been made by program volunteers. Our Pet Visitation Program and volunteers are enthusiastically received by facility managers and patients/residents. The support of facilities and patients we visit, and the number of facilities on our waiting list, clearly demonstrates to us a true need for this special program.