"Webliography" LI 804 Bibliography Project

Selective Bibliography for the Study of Adolescence and Cultural Knowledge

Jeanne M. Marsh

Submitted to
Brian and Mary O'Connor
LI 804 -Theory of Organization of Information
Spring 1996


	The topic "Adolescence and Cultural Knowledge" may be variously 
interpreted to mean one or more of the following: (1) the extent to which 
adolescents are knowledgeable in American or western world cultural 
traditions; (2) the breadth and depth of their knowledge of world cultures; 
and/or (3) the degree to which they may be immersed in the youth 
subculture which has evolved in this century in industrialized parts of the 
world.  To omit any of these three aspects of the term would be to unduly 
limit the definition of "cultural knowledge" and to ignore the ways in 
which such knowledge is acquired.  In building personal knowledge 
constructs, every young person draws from history, current affairs and 
personal experience, the three areas of social knowledge suggested by the 
interpretations above.  Therefore, this bibliography includes materials 
applicable to each interpretation.  A study of all these materials should 
yield a balanced understanding of the topic in its full complexity.
	The purpose of this compilation, then, is to guide the user to selected 
readings on adolescent cultural knowledge.  The users of such a 
bibliography would be my fellow library students interested in three 
interrelated areas of research:  determining the state of cultural literacy 
among American youth; encouraging multicultural awareness in those same 
young people; and seeking an understanding of their distinctive youth 
culture as it relates to traditional cultural knowledge.  Librarians must 
know more about youth in order to better serve that segment of the 
population.  School library media specialists, those librarians who directly 
participate in the education of our young people, will be particularly 
interested in such a bibliography, for the school curriculum should both 
transmit traditional American culture and prepare our youth for the 
emerging global society.  
	The bibliography is collected under three subheadings:  Cultural 
Literacy, Multicultural Awareness, and Youth Culture.  Within each 
category, materials are arranged in descending order of importance, based 
on my subjective judgment as to their relative value to the research effort.  
I have, for the most part, limited the materials to those published since 
1987, the year when the question of "cultural literacy" first came to public 
attention.  However, several earlier works were included to provide 
historical perspective.  Included in the annotation for each book is the 
bibliographical information, followed by a short summary, a listing of the 
subject field(s), the nature of the source, the reason for inclusion in the list, 
information on the author when available, and sources where reviews may 
be found. When one of the last two elements is missing, the entry will 
usually be listed toward the end of the readings, unless the relevance of its 
content outweighs such incompleteness.  With a few exceptions I did not 
acquire the journal articles for review, so those entries will incorporate the 
abstract and any other pertinent information taken directly from the index 
or database from which I retrieved the item.  Following those entries, I 
will indicate the source of the bibliographic information in a note.  The 
journal entries and magazine articles I actually reviewed myself will be 
summarized, but no additional information will be given.
	The research process for this project seemed self-directed once I 
began to search.  Because "cultural literacy" suggested itself as a starting 
point for a study of cultural knowledge, I began with several obvious 
sources.  The three often-quoted and controversial books by Hirsch, Bloom 
and Ravitch/Finn became the center from which my research spread. These 
three works were widely read and discussed when they were first published 
in 1987.  Whether or not the commentaries supported the authors' 
conclusions, these books generated public discussion on the problem of 
defining what should be incorporated under the term "cultural literacy."  
That term also gave me a starting point for a keyword search.  In on-line 
searches via ACLIN and CARL, I accessed Colorado College's library, the 
US Air Force Academy Library,  the library at the University of Colorado 
at Colorado Springs, and the Pikes Peak Public Library.  In these databases 
and in EBSCO's Middle Search magazine index on CD ROM, I found 
numerous entries relating to the topic.  ERIC, UnCover, Book Review 
Digest and Book Review Index were other sources I consulted for articles 
and reviews.
	Reading several of the criticisms of  the three books began to stretch 
my view of the topic at hand.  Additional keyword searches (adolescence, 
cultural knowledge, teen culture, adolescent knowledge, adolescence and 
cultural knowledge, youth culture) yielded sources which refocused my 
search toward a broader interpretation of the term "cultural knowledge."  
In the end, my research led me to redefine the kinds of cultural knowledge 
that a truly literate young patron will possess.  True, many articles 
continue to encourage educators and librarians to transmit traditional 
cultural knowledge to students, as the basis for perpetuating the values of 
our society and providing a common frame of reference.  Beyond the 
obvious need for mainstream cultural literacy, however, our educational 
goal should be to broaden young people's cultural knowledge to encompass 
an understanding of different cultures (multiculturalism), so that they can 
function effectively as adults in the global society.  Meanwhile, we 
educators must understand how today's youth culture impacts young 
people's ability and willingness to embrace adult cultural values.  These 
three focuses, therefore, became the major divisions of my bibliography. 
	Because the concept of "cultural literacy" is open to so many 
interpretations, I tried to reflect these often conflicting ideas when selecting 
entries for this bibliography.  Mine was a problem of limiting sources, 
rather than locating them.  I often came upon sources which leaned more 
toward psychology of learning than cultural acquisition of knowledge.  
With reluctance, I excluded those sources.  The teen culture aspect of my 
research often ran toward discussions of cultural deviance, and those 
materials I also bypassed.  Sometimes the discussion of cultural knowledge 
was too generalized, and it did not focus enough on youth. Finally, my 
frustration was in not knowing when to stop gathering sources and begin 
collating them.  To help myself in this effort, I asked the question, "If I 
were doing research on this topic, how much material and of what sort 
would I really want to access?"  When I answered the question from a 
user's point of view, it was much easier to select and exclude documents.  
The most gratifying part of my search was learning how to use the on-line 
search engines.  I was amazed at how easily I could acquire abstracts and 
even full-text documents in this manner.  A visit to the Rampart High 
School library and one full day at the UCCS library completed my 
research.  The more time I spent gathering these materials, the more I 
found myself wanting to take on the research task suggested by this 
bibliographic project.
	A concentrated study of the entries in this bibliography could not 
help but bring about a more circumspect approach to the question of 
cultural literacy.  As I broaden my own academic and cultural horizons, I 
understand the words of  Fred Newton Scott, who wrote in 1913:  "...we 
must continue to teach in the school and the university what cannot be 
learned by ordinary students under ordinary conditions in the street and the 
shop, namely, the ideal values of men and things in society.  For this 
purpose a certain detachment from the commonplace will always be 
necessary, and this is supplied by the fittest survivals of man's past 
expressions and communications"  (from the original article entitled "Our 
Problems," English Journal 2, January 1913:  pp. 1-10, which was quoted 
in the column "EJ Seventy-Five Years Ago," English Journal, January 
1988:  p. 63).  With a sense of pride and awesome responsibility, I begin to 
realize that librarians are often the gatekeepers to such cultural knowledge.

Bibliographic Entries

Cultural Literacy


What Do Our 17-Year-Olds Know?  A Report on the First National 
Assessment of History and Literature  Diane Ravitch & Chester E. Finn, Jr.  
New York:  Harper & Row, 1987.

Summary:  Reports on the first nationwide test of American high school 
students' knowledge of history and literature.  Authors contend that poor 
test results indicate a failure of the society to adequately transmit its culture 
to the younger generation.  Examines youth lifestyles and family 
backgrounds to help explain findings.  Recommends ways to improve 
teaching of cultural knowledge.
Subjects:  United States History--Study and Teaching (Secondary)     
American Literature--Study and  Teaching (Secondary)
     High Schools--United States-- Curricula.  Nature:  

Organized under four major headings discussing the test, the participants, 
the test results and recommendations.  Includes appendix and 
index.Inclusion:  This source focuses specifically on the cultural literacy of 
our American youth in the  traditional sense of the term.  It was one of the 
books which originally generated a great deal of controversy over the 
definition of cultural literacy and our expectations of youth.  
Diane Ravitch -- Adjunct Professor of History and Education at Teachers 
College, 	Columbia University; author of The Troubled Crusade:  
American Education, 1945-1980, The Schools We Deserve, and The Great 
School Wars.
Chester E. Finn, Jr. -- Professor of Education and Public Policy at 
Vanderbilt University;  Assistant Secretary of U.S. Dept. of Education at 
the time the book was published; author or editor of five books, including 
Against Mediocrity and Challenges to the Humanities.
Review:  Foreword by Lynne V. Cheney, then Chairman for the National 
Endowment for the  Humanities.

The Closing of the American Mind:  How Higher Education Has Failed 
Democracy and 

	Impoverished the Souls of Today's Students.  Allan Bloom.  New 
York:  Simon & 

	Schuster, 1987.

Summary:  Indictment of the post-secondary educational system for failing 
to educate students  in the values and traditions of democracy.  
Examination of the causes for such failure and

	loss of moral perspective in society and education.


Subjects:  United States -- Intellectual Life -- 20th Century 

	Education, Higher -- United States--Philosophy.

Nature:  The book consists of a Foreword by Saul Bellow, a Preface and an 
Introduction, 	followed by a three-part analysis of the students, the 
American society, and the 	university's role, both 	traditional and as 
it actually operates today.  Includes an index.
Inclusion:  This book was mentioned in commentaries as often as was 
Hirsch's book.  It provides 

	the philosophical point of view for the cultural literacy movement.  
Even though it focuses 	on higher education, the discussion of the societal 
malaise is relevant to all ages and to the 	educational system in general.

Author:  At the time the book was written, Allan Bloom was Professor in 
the Committee on 

	Social thought and the College and co-director of the John M. Olin 
Center for Inquiry into 	the Theory and Practice of Democracy at the 
University of Chicago.  He has taught at  several universities.  At Cornell 
he received the Clark Teaching Award in 1967.
Review:  Reviewed along with Hirsch's book by Robert Pattison, in the 
column "Books and the 	Arts" (pp. 710-720), in the May 30, 1987 edition 
of The Nation.

Cultural Literacy:  What Every American Needs to Know.  E.D. Hirsch, 
Jr.  Boston:  	Houghton Mifflin Co., 1987.

Summary:  The author argues strongly for a core of cultural knowledge 
which should be 	incorporated into the reading curriculum of the United 
States.  Students do not read well 	because reading is taught as a skill in 
our schools, rather than being used as a tool for the 	teaching of this 
nation's cultural values.  The author includes a list of "What Literate 
	Americans Should Know."

Subjects:  Literacy--United States

	    Educational Anthropology--United States


Nature:  Includes a preface and six chapters, followed by an appendix of 
cultural literacy terms,

	notes, and an index.

Inclusion:  No matter where I looked in my keyword searches, references 
to this book appeared.  	It was highly controversial when published, and 
its perceived elitism provided a catalyst 	for a counter-movement 
toward multiculturalism which is still strong almost ten years 	later.

Author:  At the time this book was published, E.D. Hirsch was William R. 
Kenan Professor of 	English at the University of Virginia.

Review:  Reviewed by Dan Griswold in The Gazette Telegraph, Sept 7, 
1987, p. B11.

	Also reviewed by Stefan Kanfer in Time magazine, July 20, 1987, 

Empowering Education:  Critical Thinking for Social Change.  Ira Shor.  
Chicago:  	University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Summary:  This book challenges the assumptions made by Bloom, Hirsch 
and Ravitch/Finn, that 	culture is a traditional body of knowledge to be 
passed on intact to succeeding 	generations.  In fact, he bases his book on 
the premise that society and culture are not 	static, and thus, neither 
is cultural literacy.  He advocates a "participatory pedagogy" and 
	cooperative curriculum development which empowers the learner.

Subjects  Critical pedagogy -- United States

Nature:  The author presents his challenge as a reasoned argument, then 
gives teachers an 	alternative to traditional instructional practices.  

Inclusion:  This book provides a philosophical argument in support of those 
who challenge the 	basic assumption of cultural authority residing in 
any single world view.  As such, it 	provides an alternative viewpoint to 
those of the three books listed first in this 	bibliography, as well as 
bridging the gap between the sections of this bibliography Cultural 
	Literacy, Multicultural Awareness, and Youth Culture.  I see it as a 
comprehensive work 	which helps to tie together the research effort.

Author:  Ira Shor is Professor of English at the City University of New 
York, College of Staten 	Island.

Review:  Reviewed by Dudley Barlow in Education Digest, Nov93, v59 
Issue 3, p.76.

We Hold These Truths:  Understanding the Ideas and Ideals of the 
Constitution.  Mortimer 	Adler.  New York:  MacMillan Publishing 
Company, 1987.

Summary:  Dr. Adler holds the position that students are not learning basic 
citizenship in our 	secondary schools, because they are not studying and 
mastering the content of those historical documents which convey the 
philosophy of our form of government (e.g., the Constitution, the 
Declaration of Independence, the Gettysburg Address).  

Subject:  United States--Constitutional Law

Nature:  An analysis of the problem in the body of the book is followed by 
an appendix comprised 	of the documents which Adler believes must be 
understood by all culturally literate 	citizens.

Inclusion:  This book urges a practical application for cultural literacy:  
specifically, to enable the 	citizens of the United States to control our 
own national destiny.  The only way to 	accomplish this self-
government is to understand the basis for our democracy, as 	established 
in the documents written throughout the history of our nation.  This book 
is a 	practical manual built on the concept of cultural literacy.

Author:  According to Justice Harry A. Blackmun, who wrote the 
Foreword to this book, Dr. 	Adler is a most distinguished political 
philosopher.  At the time of publication he was 	chairman of the Board 
of Editors of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, Director of the Institute  for 
Philosophical Research in Chicago, Honorary Trustee of the Aspen Institute 
for 	Humanistic Studies, and author of 38 books.

Review:  Phi Delta Kappan, V69, Dec '87, p.250.

Manufactured Crisis:  Myths, Fraud, and the Attack on America's Public 
Schools.  David 	C. Berliner and Bruce J. Biddle.  Reading, MA:  
Addison-Wesley Publishing 	Company, 1995.

Summary:  In this book the authors counter the popular notion that schools 
are failing our society in their task of teaching our youth.  This study 
closely examines, among other things, the 	nature of standardized tests and 
the changing demographics of those who are testing for 	college 
entrance.  In all, the authors confront seven "myths" or criticisms leveled 
at the 	educational system.  They also suggest some solutions to 
genuine problems they see in 	the system.

Subjects:  Public schools -- United States

	    Educational change -- United States

Nature:  The authors examine seven criticisms leveled at the American 
educational system, then propose their own analysis of the state of U.S. 
education.  Their examination is based on demographic and statistical 

Inclusion:  I chose to include this work as a balance against the books which 
so heavily indict the 	educational system of our country.  Even though 
these authors are a part of the 	educational establishment and so have a 
stake in validating its role in society, in this book 	they raise 
considerations which the other authors have not addressed:  changing  
demographics and the positive impact of modern culture on our youth, as 
well as some 	genuine concerns.  It appears to be an insightful look 
into a subject that has provided so 	much fodder for public complaint.

Authors:  Berliner was 1994's recipient of NEA's highest honor, its 
Friends of Education Award.  	He is Professor of Psychology and 
Education, as well as Curriculum and Instruction at 	Arizona State 

	Biddle is Editor of the journal Social Psychology of Education and 
professor of both 	Psychology and Sociology, and Director of the Center 
for Research in Social Behavior at 	the University of Missouri.

Review:  Reviewed by Dudley Barlow in Education Digest, V61 Issue 3,  
Nov '95, p31.


Hirsch, E. D.  "Cultural Literacy:  Let's Get Specific."  NEA Journal, Jan 
1988, pp. 15-19. 

Summary:  In this article Hirsch reiterates his plea for a systematic 
teaching of functional 	(cultural) literacy in the schools.  He attributes the 
decline in such literacy to the emphasis 	on skills instruction rather than 
contextual learning.  He places the responsibility for 	teaching cultural 
literacy with the schools, and particularly challenges teachers to uphold 
	their traditional role as transmitters of cultural knowledge.  He 
defends his list against 	critics who label it WASPish and elitist.

Sanoff, Alvin P. et al.  "What Americans Should Know."  U.S. News & 
World Report, 

	Sept. 28, 1987, pp. 86-94.

Summary:  The author discusses the three books by E.D. Hirsch, Allan 
Bloom and Ravitch/Finn 	(listed as the first three items in this 
bibliography).  Insets of sample pages from the books 	are included.  Test 
results reported by Ravitch and Finn are re-examined.  Themes 
	emphasized by Hirsch--that schools must get away from skills-based 
teaching--and 	Bloom--that loss of cultural context is the result of the 
1960's movement toward "cultural 	relativism"--are revisited.  The 
author questions whether a democratic society can function 	without 
cultural literacy.

Inclusion:  This article incorporated a discussion of all three of the main 
works published in 1987, 	on the subject of cultural literacy.  It is a 
good comparison of the three books.

Tuttleton, James W.  "Literacy at the Barricades."  Commentary, July 
1987, pp. 45-48.

Summary:  This article compares the two books Cultural Literacy, by E.D. 
Hirsch, and The 	Legacies of Literacy:  Continuities and Contradictions in 
Western Culture and Society, by 	Harvey J. Graff.  The author attacks 
Graff's argument that literacy is a manipulative tool 	of the dominant 
culture, as appallingly reductionist.  He supports Hirsch's appeal for the 
	teaching of cultural literacy.

Inclusion:  I included this article as an example of the controversy aroused 
by the publication of 	Cultural Literacy.

Gallimore, Ronald and others.  "The Developmental and Sociocultural 
Foundations of 	Mentoring."  ERIC Issue:  RIEJUN93.  

Summary:  This paper presents a series of propositions concerning 
processes that are at work in 	mentoring relationships, with each 
proposition accompanied by a brief discussion of the 	theory and 
research on which it is based.  Examples are provided of the role of 
mentoring 	in the development of creative individuals.  The propositions 
cover...the importance of 	speech and other signs and symbols that 
work to create intersubjectivity among 	participants transmitting 
meaning, values, affect, motivaton, and culture.  Further sections 
	discuss mentoring as enculturation through which cultural 
inheritance is passed on in 	mentoring....
Note:  This summary is excerpted from an abstract found in a combined 
ERIC search.

Inclusion:  Whereas I have not read this article, the concept of mentorships 
as a vehicle for the 	transmission of culture holds promise in an 
industrialized society where typically youth are 	separated from the work 
world.  In the Youth Culture section of the bibliography, the 	author of 
Youth in a Changing Society, makes a similar plea for intergenerational 

Johnson, Lory, Comp.  Annotated Bibliography for High School Reading:  
A Suggested 	Bibliography for 9-12 Students.  Revised Edition.  ERIC 
Issue:  RIESEP94.

Summary:  Designed to expose young readers to a wide variety of literary 
genres, this annotated 	bibliography provides a list of approximately 700 
recently published adolescent literature 	selections representative of the 
universal themes in literature.

Note:  This summary is excerpted from an abstract found in a combined 
ERIC search.

Johnson, Lory, Comp.  Annotated Bibliography for Junior High/Middle 
School Reading:  	A Suggested 	Bibliography for 6-9 Students.  
Revised Edition.  ERIC Issue:  	RIESEP94.

Summary:  Designed to expose young readers to a wide variety of literary 
genres, this annotated 	bibliography provides a list of over 500 recently 
published adolescent literature 	selections representative of the 
universal themes in literature.

Note:  This summary is excerpted from an abstract found in a combined 
ERIC search.

Multicultural Awareness


Empowerment through Multicultural Education.  Ed. Christine E. Sleeter.  
Albany:  State 	University of New York Press, 1991.

Summary:  This book is a collection of fourteen essays aimed at 
empowering students who do not 	respond to traditional curriculum and 
its traditional presentation.  The contributors to this 	volume cover such 
factors as race, gender, economic class, technological disadvantage, 	and 
linguistic disadvantage among students.  The introductory essay by the 
editor 	describes the variety of ways in which the term "multicultural 
education" is misinterpreted 	by those who object to the concept.  The 
remainder of the collection deals with specific 	student populations, 
strategies for educational empowerment, and teacher training issues.

Subjects:  Intercultural education--United States

	Education--Social aspects -- United States -- Case studies

	Educational equalization -- United States

	Political socialization -- United States

	Teachers -- Training of -- United States

Nature:  The essays are arranged in three parts, corresponding to the issues 
mentioned in the 	summary above.  It includes an index, a notes and 
reference section, and biographical 	notes on each of the sixteen 
contributing essayists.  

Inclusion:  This book is central to the defined focus of the bibliography.  It 
tackles head-on the 	conflict between those who advocate teaching a 
basic core literacy and those who are 	disturbed by what they see as 
ethnocentrism in education.  The strength of this book is in 	the variety 
and quality of its contributors.  If I were to choose a single source from 
which 	to "citation chase," it would be this one.  Unfortunately, I 
found it too late in my research 	to allow for that activity.  I would 
highly recommend the user of this bibliography to do 	so.  Of particular 
relevance to the topic at hand is the essay by Christine Sleeter and Carl 
	Grant, entitled "Mapping Terrains of Power:  Student Cultural 
Knowledge Versus 	Classroom Knowledge."

Author:  Christine E. Sleeter is Associate Professor of Education at the 
University of Wisconsin-	Parkside.  Her major research interests are 
multicultural education, school ethnography, 	teacher education, and 
sociology of special education.  She contributes to a variety of 
	educational journals and is author of the book, Keepers of the 
American Dream.

Reviews:  Journal of Teacher Education, V43 March '92, p.149.

	Choice, V28 May '91, p. 1538.

Videos for Understanding Diversity:  A Core Selection and Evaluative 
Guide.  Ed. Gregory 	I. Stevens.  Chicago & London:  American 
Library Association, 1993.

Summary:  This book is a catalog of videos on the the topic of cultural 
diversity.  Also provided 	are annotations describing contents and 
giving suggestions for use in the classroom 	setting.  Included with 
each entry are critical comments by experts in the subject field 
	covered by the specific video.

Subjects:  Intercultural education -- United States -- Video tape catalogs

	Pluralism (Social sciences) -- United States -- Video tape catalogs

Nature:  This catalog includes an introduction, a usage guide, a key to 
themes and categories, an 	index of titles and themes, a categorical 
index, and reviews of each entry

Inclusion:  I was delighted to find this resource available from the ALA.  
Not only is it an 	exhaustive listing of videos on the topic, but the reviews 
are invaluable.  Other elements to 	recommend this resource are the 
guidelines for use, including copyright restrictions 	for public 
viewing; and a directory of distributors found in the back of the catalog.

Author:  Selection by the American Library Association

Review:  School Library Media Quarterly, V21 Summer '93, p. 266.

The Graywolf Annual Five:  Multicultural Literacy--Opening the 
American Mind.  Ed. 	Rick Simonson & Scott Walker.  St. Paul:  
Graywolf Press, 1988.

Summary:  This book is a response to Hirsch's and Bloom's books, which 
Scott Walker concedes 	are correct in their assessment of the general lack 
of cultural knowledge in America.  The 	author suggests, however, that 
the cultural literacy list is simply too exclusive.  

Subject:  Multicultural education -- United States

Nature:  This volume is a collection of thirteen essays by such writers as 
James Baldwin, Wendell 	Berry, Carlos Fuentes, and Ishmael Read, 
designed to expand the definition of cultural 	literacy into one of 
multicultural literacy.  In the book the editors also offer a list of 
	multicultural entries to be added to Hirsch's original list of what 
every American needs to 	know to be culturally literate.

Inclusion:  As the focus for my bibliography began to include criticisms of 
the primary sources 	concerning cultural literacy, this book offered 
itself as a mediator between the two 	viewpoints.  While conceding the lack 
of traditional cultural knowledge is a serious 	problem, the editors see 
multiculturalism as a more enlightened path to cultural literacy.  	The 
stature and variety of contributing authors lends authority to this volume as 
a valuable 	addition to the bibliography.

Authors:  Rick Simonson is the book buyer for Elliott Bay Books of 

	No information on Scott Walker.

Review:  Reviewed by Kim Ode in the Rocky Mountain News, Jan. 5, 
1989, p. 12-S.

Learning Across Cultures.  Ed. Gary Althen.  United States:  NAFSA 
Association of 	International 	Educators, 1994.

Summary:  This book addresses the theme of cultural exchange on an 
international scale.  It is a 	collection of essays dealing with a variety 
of cross-cultural issues and the need for 	education in this arena.  The 
aim of the book is to equip youth for a future world where 	regular 
intercultural exchange will be a way of life.  Topics covered include 
intercultural 	communication, cross-cultural adaptation and training, 
cultural differences on campus, and 	the multicultural classroom.

Subject:  Multicultural education -- United States

Nature:  Nine essays by various contributors are organized into this 
volume.  The book includes 	an introduction by the editor and a section 
of bibliographic notes on the authors.

Inclusion:  This selection seemed to round out this section of the 
bibliography because of its 	emphasis on international cultural exchange 
and the impact of such on the future of our 	students.  American 
youth today live in a changing world which increasingly stresses 	global 
exchange.  An adequate preparation for the future must include 
multicultural 	awareness and cross-cultural training.
Author:  The editor of this collection, Gary Althen, is assistant director for 
foreign students and 	scholars in the University of Iowa's Office of 
International Education and Services.  He is 	author or co-author of 
over forty publications relating to international cultural exchange.

Review:  No review found.


Banks, J.  "Multicultural Literacy and Curriculum Reform."  Education 
Digest, Dec91, 	Vol. 57 Issue 4, p10, 4p.

Summary:  Presents a reprint of article from "Educational Horizons," 
which states that our 	concept of cultural literacy should not be neutral 
and static.  Rather than transmitting 	knowledge in a largely uncritical 
way, educators should help students recognize that 	knowledge reflects 
the social context in which it is created and that it has normative and 
	value assumptions.

Note:  This entry was taken from the EBSCO Middle Search CD ROM, 
Spring 1996.

Inclusion:  I chose to include this article, even though I have not reviewed 
it, because of its 	emphasis on culture as an evolving, on-going reflection 
of its time and societal 	circumstances.  Such an idea is vital to a tie 
between youth culture and adult culture.

Shore, Paul.  "Curriculum and Cuture."  Humanist, May/Jun95, Vol. 55 
Issue 3, p30, 2p.

Summary:  This article discusses the value placed on cultural knowledge by 
students in American 	society versus the attitude toward such knowledge 
in other countries.  He concludes that 	Americans have a "fragmented 
appreciation for culture stemming from the tension 	between our desire 
to forget [our immigrant roots, for instance] and our need to 	remember."  
He maintains that we need a shared cultural language to enable us as a 
nation 	to maintain a unified society.

Inclusion:  This article makes an interesting comparison between 
mainstream American 	perceptions of culture and the perspective on 
culture shared by most other countries of the 	world, not to mention 
the value placed on such cultural traditions owned by minorities in 	our 
own country.  I thought it provided a slightly different justification for 
Hirsch-style 	cultural literacy.

Youth Culture


Studies in Adolescence:  A Book of Readings in Adolescent Development.  
Ed. Robert 	Grinder.New York:  MacMillan Publishing Company, 1975.

Summary:  This book is comprised of forty-four essays on the nature of 
adolescence.  According 	to the editor, almost seventy researchers 
contributed their efforts, and articles were drawn 	from twenty-eight 
journals.  Most of the essays focus on the relationship of youths with 
	social institutions including, among others, the peer group, the 
family, and the 	educational system.

Subjects:  Adolescence -- Addresses, essays, lectures

Nature:  This work includes a preface and an index.  The body of the book 
is divided into eight 	major subthemes.

Inclusion:  In spite of the copyright date, I included this work, partly 
because of its comprehensive 	coverage of the topic of adolescence and the 
authority of its contributing authors, but 	particularly because it focuses 
extensively on the relationship of youth to the larger society 	and culture.  
Of special relevance to the bibliography are Part 1 (Adolescence and 
	Society), Part 5 (Socialization: Youth-Culture Commitments) and 
Part 6 (Socialization:  	Value Commitments).
Author:  A professor at the University of Arizona, Robert Grinder has 
revised this book three 	times.  Earlier editions were published in 1963 
and 1969.

Youth in a Changing Society.  Fred Milson.  London:  Routledge & Kegan 
Paul Ltd., 1972.

Summary:  Criticism of youth culture has a long tradition.  In his 
introduction the author 	comments on the perennial interest in youth which 
society has exhibited since the time of 	Socrates. This book concerns 
itself with adults' almost obsessive preoccupation with the 	failure of 
youth to reflect traditional societal values.  Added to this stereotypical 
	perception of youth culture is the stress placed upon the young by a 
rapidly changing 	world.  The author's hope is in building closer 
relationships between older and younger 	members of society to ensure 
cultural transmission to the younger generation and to dispel 	harmful 

Subjects:  No LC listings

Nature:  The book includes an introduction, five chapters and an index.

Inclusion:  The theme of this book is just as relevant today as it was twenty-
five years ago.  I 	particularly appreciated the author's positive approach 
to the issue of intergenerational 	communication.  Although the book 
was written in Great Britain, the relevance to 	American youth and 
society is clear.  From an educator's viewpoint, I liked this book for 
	its empathetic perspective on young people.
Author:  At the time of publication, Fred Milson was head of the Youth 
and Community Service 	Department at Westhill College of 
Education in Birmingham, England.

Review:  Choice, V9 Oct '72, p. 1051.

The Sociology of Youth:  Themes and Perspectives in Sociology.  Simon 
Frith.  Ormskirk, 	GB:  Causeway Press Ltd., 1984.

Summary:  This book discusses the rise of a youth culture and its 
sociological impact as 	industrialization has brought about a separation 
between home and work.  It discusses the 	function of a youth culture in 
managing transitions during adolescent years.  Other topics 	include 
youth as a social problem (delinquency, racial and class conflicts), sub-
cultural 	theory and the future of youth in society.

Subjects:  No LC listings

Nature:  The book includes six chapters, an index and a bibliography.

Inclusion:  This book gave valuable historical perspective on the rise of a 
distinct youth culture in 	modern society.  It was the only book I 
found which specifically justified such a subculture 	for its practical 
value in the process of coping with the overwhelming transitions faced by 

Author:  No information

Review:  Times Educational Supplement, Sept. 14, 1984, p. 38.


Witkin, Mitzi.  "A Defense of Using Pop Media in the Middle-School 
Classroom."  English 	Journal, Jan94, Vol. 83 Issue 1, p30, 4p, 1bw.

Summary:  Defends the use of pop media in the middle-school classroom.  
Billy Crystal's speech 	on his acceptance of the Creative Achievement 
Award for Comedy; Asking of teachers to 	reflect on the lessons they 
prepare and to find ways to validate nontraditional tasks in the 
	classrooms;  Teachers' use of popular teen culture in the classroom.

Note:  This entry was taken from the EBSCO Middle Search CD Rom.

Inclusion:  I included this article because encourages application of the 
theories presented by the 	books earlier listed in this section of the 

Marshak, David.  "Re-Humanizing Our Children"  Education Digest, 
Dec95, Bol. 61 Issue 	4, p7, 5p, 1 cartoon.

Summary:  This article looks at the reasons for emergence of a youth 
culture in modern society:  	industrialization separating youth from the 
workplace; the freedom provided by 	automobiles; post-war 
prosperity; technology giving rise to teen-centered mass media; and 	high 
school consolidation.  He concentrates on this last element, postulating that 
loss of 	adult-student intimacy in a larger school creates the need for a 
teen culture to fill the 	affective void.  He discusses how schools may 
begin to once again teach values, giving 	concrete suggestions for 
attaining this goal.

Inclusion:  Cultural values are an important aspect of cultural knowledge.  
This article brings 	together the concepts of youth culture and the 
educators' role in the teaching of traditional 	cultural values.  For this 
reason I thought it a valuable addition to the bibliography.

Simonetti, Marie-Claire.  "Teenage Truths and Tribulations across 
Cultures."  Journal of 	Popular Film and Television, Spring 1994, v22n1, 
pp. 38-42.

Summary:  TV shows plaly a vital role in the conditoning of American and 
Canadian youth.  	America's "Beverly Hills 90210" and Canada's 
"Degrassi Junior High" and their impact 	on teenagers are discussed.

Note:  This entry was taken from a combined ERIC search.

Inclusion:  Although I had no opportunity to read this article, the abstract 
suggests that it will be a 	good addition to the bibliography because 
of the importance mass media play in the 	formation, reflection and 
dissemination of youth culture.

Ducey, Michael.  "The Meaning of 'Adolescent Chatter' in the Context of 
Violent Schools."

	Contemporary Education, v52 n1, p42-46, Fall 1980.

Summary:  The incresing failure of cross-generational cultural 
transmission in America can be 	examined through research into the 
meaning of adoslescent language usage.  Adolescents 	view 
inconsistencies in adult society as contradictory to imposed norms.  Since 
society is 	experiencing a loss of culture, secondary schools need to 
become the locus for its 	transmission.

Note:  This entry was taken from a combined ERIC search.

Inclusion:  Although the title of this article does not look promising, the 
abstract indicates its 	relevance to the topic of the bibliography, 
including a slant toward my audience of library 	media specialists.  I did 
not read the article, but it looks promising.

Eve, Raymond A  "'Adolescent Culture,' Convenient Myth or Reality?  A 
Comparison of 	Students and Their Teachers."  Sociology of Education, 
V48 Issue 2, Sep76, pp. 152-	67.

Summary:  Attempts to ascertain empirically whether a "value gap" 
between youth culture and the 	adult world does exist by discussing finding 
of five authors on the subject.  Evidence 	indicates that although students 
do maintain a statistically distinct value system, this 	system is 
primarily conventional in its orientation and differs only to a relatively 
small 	degree from the value system of the adult world.

Note:  This entry was taken from a combined ERIC search

Inclusion:  This article takes issue with the popular assumption that youth 
do not share that part 	of cultural knowledge which we identify as 
traditional values.  Because youth tend to 	"mellow with age," I am 
interested in this idea.  I was not able to read the article, however.

Burlingame, William V.  "An Investigation of the Correlates of Adherence 
to the 	Adolescent Peer Culture."  ERIC Issue RIEJAN68.

Summary:  The adolescent peer culture was examined to determine 
conditions among adolescents 	associated with dependence on, or 
independence of, the youoth culture.  A model 	containing the 
dimensions of the youth culture was constructed.  Adolescent youth culture 
	adherence include the tendency to view the adolescent years as idyllic 
and developmentally 	distinct, and the tendency to conflict with the 
usual representatives of societal authority....
Note:  This entry was taken from a combined ERIC search

Inclusion:  This study sounds as though it may provide an interesting model 
to test some of the 	assumptions society holds concerning teen culture.  
I did not read the article.

Lukenbill, W. Bernard.  "The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly:  Popular 
Culture as Sources of 	Behavior Information for Youth."  Catholic 
Library World, v56 n9, Apr'85, pp382-86.

Summary:  Discusses five developmental needs of adolescents and explains 
how they contribute 	to an "instrumental approach" to the selection of 
library materials.  Highlights include 	traditional attitudes of 
librarians; place of popular culture in libraries; popular culture 	media 
as arbitrators of behaviors; and heroes, mass media, and reading.  Eighteen 
sources 	are given.

Note:  This entry was taken from a combined ERIC search

Inclusion:  This article seems to consider the role of librarianship with 
regard to youth culture.  It 	is the only source I saw specifically dealing 
with this connection.  I did not read the article, 	however.