"Webliography" LI 804 Bibliography Project

Bibliography on Artist's Knowledge

Joan McColley

May 2, 1996
LI 804
Theory of Organization of Information

The topic of the following Bibliography is "Artist's Knowledge". The scope covers the means by which the artist educates himself/herself. My research spanned two public libraries (Jefferson County-Columbine Branch and Denver Public Library-Main Branch), the Internet and an interview with an art teacher, Betty Wayman. The main sources utilized were books, mainly because my Internet search only uncovered artist's selling their wares. Also, the majority of the magazine articles I located on the Uncover database could only be retrieved via Interlibrary loan, which had time constraints.

The search terms used were: artist, artist's knowledge, knowledge and art education. My quest began at Columbine Library and was unproductive. I found no matches for artist's knowledge, and overabundance of associations for knowledge. After chasing down a few references under knowledge-art, I located some useless material on topics ranging from singers to poets. From that point, I examined the periodical's index for the same topics and found nothing applicable from that search, either. I then started over at the on-line catalog system and performed a search on Education, then choose those sub-headings related to art. The books I required were not on the shelf (even though the catalog indicated they were), so I decided to browse the shelves in the area. Next, I moved on the Denver Public Library and performed the same actions and came up with the majority of my sources. I was also referred to a particular book (Betty Edward's, Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain) through my interview with the art teacher, then followed the bibliography of that book. I only found two of them, but again browsed the surrounding shelves and dug up a few more. I then scanned the Uncover database, which located hundreds of articles on the search: Education-Art. However, most of these journal articles could be found only at Regis University and the University of Colorado. If I would have had the luxury of a couple of more weeks time, I would have attempted to obtain them through Interlibrary loan.

This bibliography is alphabetized by author's last name and is also ranked from one to four stars, with four being the most advantageous for this topic. I included a biography of the author, if found. Each annotation includes: the intended audience, what information is included in the book, how detailed and/or technical is the work. A description of the internal organization, consisting of: the preface, introduction, bibliography and index (if included and was it useful). I only included works I could find at these two libraries, since the Interlibrary loan process was too slow. At the end there is a listing of works I could not obtain.

This topic is very general. Because art is not a discipline with a Code of Ethics, a theory-base or any particular course of study (many artists have no formal education), it is difficult to pin-point how artists gain knowledge in their field.



* Anderson, Kathleen, "Learning from the Masters", American Artist, October 1991, Vol. 55, Issue 591, p. 54.

This article is about an artist, Malcolm T. Liepke, who acquires his knowledge mostly by studying the great master's works in art museums. Liepke wants his paintings to be human and emotional, not too technical. The knowledge he gained from studying the masters was: learning how to draw, learning about form, learning about how light hits an object. This knowledge gave Liepke freedom. Liepke supplements his income as a commercial artist.

The article is not too technical or very detailed. The intended audience is the budding artist. The article is well organized and easy to read.


Arnheim, Rudolf, "Art and Visual Perception-A Psychology of the Creative Eye," University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1954.

In this book, Arnheim indicates that he doesn't feel an artist can gain all of his/her knowledge by merely being exposed to the masters. An artist needs to be self-aware as well. Arnheim tries to apply the approaches and findings of psychology to the study of art. He believes that vision is a grasping of significant structural patterns.

The table of contents consists of chapters that list elements of an artistic work: balance, shape, form, growth, space, light, color, movement, tension and expression. The book contains about twenty pages of endnotes and a quite extensive bibliography, as well as an index. The index includes: names of great artists and names of paintings, names of psychologists, as well as a general term such as an angle.

The book is extremely detailed and technical. In his introduction, Arnheim states that he started the book back in 1941, so he obviously put a great deal of research into it. It is geared toward post-secondary art students and teachers.

*Canaday, John, "Keys to Art", Tudor Publishing Co., New York, 1962. First published with French text by Luc Benoist under the title, "Regarde ou les Clefs de l'art", by Fernand Hazan, Paris, 1962.

The aim of this book is to transform passive "looking" into active, intelligent "seeing" to help focus and refine the reader's vision to more fully and deeply appreciate a work of art. It delves into how the ideals of a particular culture are crystallized in the creativity of the artist, how the artist's personal values and his relation to the world is expressed. This book's angle is interpreting an artist's knowledge by viewing his work. It deals with training the art appreciator's eye rather than the artist's. The object of the book is to narrow the gap between the act of seeing and perception.

The book contains hundreds of illustrations. It is organized with an introduction, chapters and illustrations on every page. The book is intended mainly for the general public or anyone interested in art. It is not very technical for that reason. There is no index nor a bibliography. I feel an index is needed with all of the illustrations of famous works of art.

**Collier, Graham, "Art and the Creative Consciousness", Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1972.

In his book, Collier states that a work of art is born through the creative consciousness and a body of knowledge. The book deals with the psychology of art. Graham discusses studying the work of the masters to get a sense of their creative consciousness.

This is a fairly detailed and technical book suitable to post-secondary art students. It contains a lot of illustrations for examples. The introduction is written by Rene Huyghe of the French College and Vice President of Counsel at the Museum of France. Following the introduction is a table of contents that lists chapters, a preface and followed by an adequate index.


Dewey, John, "Art as Experience", Minton, Balch & Company , New York, 1934.

This book is about art philosophy. Dewey points out the fact that art doesn't exist aside from it's creator-that it is made up of the experiences of the artist. The book also deals with art theory. The book is aimed at post-secondary art students. It is very detailed and technical.

The book is arranged by chapters with an index. The index is fairly short and I noted at least one instance where the name was not on the page indicated in the index. Renaissance is misspelled as well.

**** Edwards, Betty, "Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain-A Course in enhancing Creativity and Artistic Confidence", J.P. Tarcher, Inc., Los Angeles, California, 1979.

The subject area of this book is specific to teaching anyone to draw, but can be related to getting in touch with the right side of the brain to tap artistic knowledge. Edwards feels that anyone can learn to draw, but first they must learn how to see and that is what this book teaches. It enlightens a person as to how their brain handles visual information. Edwards also believes that while drawing, artists slip into another state of consciousness, sort of like daydreaming. She states that the key to learning to draw then is mentally shifting to a different mode of information processing.

This book is written for anyone interested in drawing or anyone wishing to overcome blocks to their creativity. Teachers and parents may find it helpful in coaching children to develop creative abilities. The book goes into great detail in the lessons, but it is not too technical, so the non-art teacher or a high school student can learn from it.

The book contains nine lessons, chapters, a glossary of terms, bibliography and an index. It has many examples of the steps involved in drawing. It also contains before and after drawings from some of Edward's students.

*** Feldman, Edmund Burke, "Becoming Human Through Art-Aesthetic Experience in the Schools", Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1970.

This book introduces teaching art as an aesthetic education. Feldman aims to present his book in a visual learning style, incorporating images and book design as an instructional media in themselves. He blends art philosophy, art history, art criticism, art education and studio performances in his book.

This book is geared toward art teachers and students in an easy to read style. Feldman uses cartoons, sculpture, architecture, signs, interior design, and paintings for samples. The book is arranged in parts, then chapters, including one covering curriculum and art criticism techniques. Feldman also included and extensive bibliography coinciding with each chapter. The index is extensive and accurate.

* Grubman, Cathy, "Studying Painting in the National Gallery of Art", American Artist, May 1996, Vol. 60, Issues 646, p. 56.

This article was related how a 60-year-old artist, Gerald King learns his art by studying the masters. The article includes illustrations of King's original artwork, as well as his reproductions of the old masters. King's reasoning is because there is no one living who can teach this way of painting. He believes that copying from the originals of the old masters gives an artist the opportunity to observe brushstroke, depth of color and multiple coloration. King also states that the research, investigation, practice and production of art never stops.

The article is not very technical, uses no fancy terminology nor is it very detailed. The publication's audience is artists and those desiring to be artists.

* Hurwitz, Laurie S., "Jim Watson: Contemporary Impressionist", American Artist, Vol. 60, Issues 644, March 1996, p. 22.

The article describes how Watson studies 19th Century impressionist painters. He is also an art teacher. Watson believes as King does that studying an original painting gives an artist an insight he would not have studying a reproduction or a photograph. This article is not technical or detailed and is intended for artist or those studying art.

**Kaufman, Irving, "Art and Education in Contemporary Culture", The MacMillan Company, New York, 1966.

This is a textbook dealing with major philosophical concepts. The intent of the book is to raise more questions than it answers; to be a jumping off point for the individual reader to seek their own answers. It covers the whole gamut from: responsibilities of teaching art, aims for art in education, psychological assessment, the creative process, art and culture and symbolic functions of art. The book is very detailed and directed toward high school students and teachers.

The book is organized with a table of contents listing chapter titles. It contains many examples of art, including: children's art, masterpieces, sculptures, advertisements and architecture. The index is quite detailed.

** Keiler, Manfred L., "The Art of Teaching Art", University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 1961.

Keiler approaches an artist's knowledge from the theory that to understand and apply art, one must first study it's history. The various chapters discuss the value of art in society and the creative process (perception, empathy, imagination, fantasy, experience and skill). This book is designed for art teachers and at least the high school level student. It is somewhat technical and detailed.

The book is arranged first in Parts, then sub-headings by Chapters. It also contains historical examples of art. The index is very detailed with simple subjects and sub-subjects with many terms and artists listed.

**** Lansing, Kenneth M., "Art, Artists and Art Education", McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1969.

The purpose of the book was to help teachers in art education develop and apply philosophy to their instruction. It is a textbook, as well as a practical orientation. Subjects covered include: the nature of art, definition of creativity, personality characteristics of artists, differences between the mediocre and master artists, explanations for artistic growth in children, and research in art education. The book is very detailed as it is a textbook for art teachers, yet not highly technical. Although the book is outdated, it could be very useful in assisting teachers to help their students develop artistic abilities.

The book is organized with a table of contents, an introduction, discussion questions, chapters and illustrations (including advertisements and children's drawings), suggestions for further reading and an average index.

*** Linderman, Earl W. and Herberholz, Donald W., "Developing Artistic and Perceptual Awareness-Art Practice in an Elementary Classroom", William C. Brown Company Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa, 1964.

This book mainly focuses on teaching art to elementary students and states that this is when artistic perception is born. The authors believe that no potential will be realized or discovered without the opportunity for a child to fully explore a their abilities, to try and to participate freely. The formidable task of education is to keep a child's perception open and help them develop both sensitivity and selectivity.

This is a guide to help parents and teachers stimulate experiences in children which are basic to unfolding their creative expression. It is also good for anyone interested in enriching their own awareness and sensitivity to art. The book goes into detail on: creativity awareness, experiences to expose children to, tools and materials to use, and steps to starting an art program.

The book is organized by subject (chapters) and sub-Headings (page numbers). Acknowledgments at the front indicate sources. The index lists terms, artistic periods, artists and authors. There is also a forward by Edward L. Mattil, Chairman of the Department of Art of Pennsylvania State University. Mattil felt this book was excellent for teachers so they may understand and care deeply about the experiences they pass on to children.

***McCaleb, "Art Education Today", Media and Methods, Mar/Apr. 1990, Vol. 26, Issue 4, p. 20.

The article deals with new ways students learn about art, including filmstrips and videos on famous artists, one that teaches drawing and basic elements of design. The article lists examples of film and video titles that can be ordered, and also includes a sourcebook so that teachers can pick and choose which ones they would like to use for their class. A research service is mentioned that teachers can use to obtain printouts from a national database on specific topics. The article also describes how new computer programs, including: paint, design for sculpture, paintings and collage that assist students. One teacher instructs students about symmetry using an electronic blackboard. Students are able to record images from photographs and create animated videos with computers.

This article is aimed at art teachers. It isn't very technical, but goes into a great detail. It is well organized and easy to read.

*Moorman, Margaret, "The Great Art Education Debate", ARTNews, Summer 1989, Vol. 88, Issue 6, p. 124.

The article compares Discipline Based Art Education (DBAE), inspired by J. Paul Getty and a hot topic in the 1980's with Howard Gardner's Project Zero, which places artistic production at the center of art education. Project Zero's theory is that artists should be studied because they know what art is all about. DBAE focuses more on studying art terminology. The biggest criticism of DBAE is that it is not sensitive to America's multicultural society. Another major question is: Can art be taught in a disciplinary structure or will that structure stifle the artist's creativity?

The article is aimed at parents, administrators and teachers. It can be useful in analyzing a curriculum. It is fairly technical and very detailed with plenty of examples from schools that teach DBAE. It is also well organized.

* Pappas, George, "Concepts in Art and Education-An Anthology of Current Issues", The MacMillan Company, New York, 1970.

This anthology gives the student or teacher insight into problems and issues involved in teaching art today. The book begins with readings on major historical developments that have played an important role in shaping contemporary theory and methodology. The next section deals with concepts and theories of leading art educators. The portion that follows concerns political, economic and social mainstreams of society. The next segment is mainly concerned with innovative insights to pave the way for the future of art education. Pappas stresses that teachers need the knowledge gained through experimental educational research. Lastly, it delves into critical analysis, formulation of goals and research.

The book is arranged in parts, chapters, then by individual essays. It has a table of contents. Each work is followed by a list of references unique to each essay. There was no index.

*Rader, Melvin and Jessup, Betram, "Art and Human Values", Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1976.

The book includes a biography of the authors. At the publishing time, Rader was a Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Washington. He is an author of numerous books. Jessup was formerly Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Oregon. Both have been president of the American Society for Aesthetics and the Pacific Division of American Philosophers Association.

This book discusses how art affects all areas of life and human values. It is good for art students and philosophy students and those shopping for good art. It discusses poetry, music and literature, as well as fine art.

The book contains a detailed table of contents with chapters and sub-headings with page numbers. It is very organized. The appendix lists all works cited and some recommended readings on the history of aesthetics, as well as more current books on the subject. The appendix also lists reference sources on works of art in visual arts, music (scores and recordings) and literature. The index is fairly detailed, including only topics and works of art. Names are barely mentioned.

*** Randhawa, Bikkar S. and Coffman, William E., Editors, "Visual Learning, Thinking and Communication", Academic Press, New York, 1978.

One portion of this book in particular addresses the subject of assessing the role of imagery in creativity. It considers the artist's attempts to externalize their own mental images. The section that deals with this is Chapter 8 by Roger N. Shepard from Stanford University. He argues that highly original and significant creations are derived from nonverbal, internal representations and/or spatial/visual images. This chapter interweaves applied and theoretical issues.

This chapter is organized by many references to great scientists, mathematicians, inventors, philosophers and artists. Shepard describes examples of how each of these people incorporate visual imagery into their creations. He also discussed dream images. Shepard includes an extensive list of references (over five pages) for his essay. At the end of the book, there are two indexes (names and subjects). I found at least one instance where the referenced name could not be found on the page listed.

Silverman, Ronald H., "Disciplined-Based Art Education", The Education Digest, October 1989, Vol. 55, Issue 2, p. 53.

Another article debating Discipline-Based Art Education. The big question: Should all secondary level students be required to take this art curriculum? The curriculum includes art production (acquiring representational, interpretational and creative skills), art history, art criticism (ability to evaluate, identify and interpret works of art) and esthetics (investigating issues and questions concerning the nature and value of art). Proponents believe this curriculum will develop cognitive and perceptual skills. Teachers are confused on how to assess students achievements other than the display of artwork.

This article is geared to administrators, parents and teachers that are evaluating a curriculum. It is not very detailed or technical, just a general overview of the program. It is easy to read.

**** Wayman, Betty, an art teacher for fifteen years at Peakview Elementary School, interview.

Betty Wayman has been teaching art for fifteen years and she does not currently teach other subjects. She has a Master's Degree in Education and has been interviewed by the Discovery Channel. This was because of the 50-foot whale she has in her home. It is part of an art project a group of her students worked on for a year. Each child created a sculpture of an animal that lives in the ocean. Betty created the whale.

Although Ms. Wayman says she doesn't necessarily agree with the proponents of Discipline-Based Art Education, the way she teaches does seem to coincide with some of their beliefs. She teaches her students art history, she has her students look at the artwork previously done in the area they are covering (Southwestern art , for example), she exposes them to different media, and checks their knowledge of art terminology. On the flip side, Ms. Wayman is also a great believer in Howard Gardner's Seven Levels of Intelligence and incorporates that into her teaching. She doesn't grade her students-they receive a pass/fail grade by an assessment she does on what they produce, by their demonstrated knowledge of the terminology, their design and understanding the culture behind it.

Ms. Wayman is currently teaching art to a blind child by using texture. She believes there is a parallel between children with learning disabilities - they are usually great artists. She feels this may be explained in Betty Edward's book, Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain. Perhaps these children have an under-developed left brain and an over-developed right brain. Like McCaleb's article on resources for art teachers, Ms. Wayman utilizes books, videos and brainstorming in instructing her students on creativity. Each child will leave her class with a portfolio of their work.

Ms. Wayman was an excellent source, because she reminded me of the Betty Edward's book I had used for my creativity project in LI802. She also reiterated what several other sources had mentioned on teaching art. She sounds like a wonderful teacher and could make any student a great artist.


These sources were either checked out when I searched for them or available only through Interlibrary loan.

Baker, David, "Practices and Theories", Design for Arts in Education, January 1, 1990.

Buzan, T., "Using Both Sides of Your Brain", E.P. Dutton, New York, 1976.

Carlisle, Barbara, "Fourth Good Observations", Journal of Aesthetic Education, Spring 1989.

Ciganko, Richard, "Creating Realities", Art Education, May 1, 1992.

Corballis, M. and Beale, I., "Psychology of Left and Right", Lawrence Erlebaum Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey, 1976.

Damico, Victor, "Assemblage-New Dimension in Creative Teaching".

Da Vinci, Leonardo, "Art of Painting", Philosophical Library, 1957.

Dunnahoo, Dan, "Rethinking Creativity", Art Education, August 1, 1993.

Friend, D., "Composition-A Painter's Guide to Basic Problems and Solutions".

Grant, Daniel, "On Becoming an Artist", Allworth Press, 1993.

Gregory, R.L., "Eye and Brain: Psychology of Seeing", 2nd ed., rev., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1973.

Hamblen, Karen, "As I See It", Art Education, August 1, 1989.

Huxley, A., "Art of Seeing", Harper and Brothers, 1942.

Leddy, Thomas, "A Creative Process", Journal of Aesthetic Education, Fall 1990.

Michael, John, "Art Education: Nature vs. Nurture", Art Education, August 1, 1991.

Mittler, Gene, "Intellect and Emotion", Journal of Aesthetic Education, Summer 1991.

Moody, Laurie, "An Analysis of Drawing", Studies in Art Education, Fall 1992.

Rettallack, Lambert, " Exploring Art Education's Creative Process", Visual Arts Research, Spring 1990.

Richmond, Stuart, "Three Assumptions that Influence Art", Journal of Aesthetic Education, Summer 1991.

Rodwell, Jimmy, "Drawing-Step by Step Art School", Exeter Books, 1987.

Sandler, Alan, "Learning by Design", Art Education, September 1, 1989.

Sutton, Carrie, "Making Meaning", Art Education, July 1, 1991.

Sylva, Ronald, " Creation and Re-Creation", Art Education, January 1, 1993.

Szekely, George, "Encouraging Creativity in Art Lessons".

Troeger, Betty, "Delineating a Model-A Look at Educational Theory", Visual Arts Research, Spring 1990.

Wayman, Betty, Peakview Elementary School, art teacher, 695-9582.

Wolf, Robert, "Visceral Learning", Journal of Art Therapy, July 1, 1990.