"Webliography" LI 804 Bibliography Project

Television and the Humanities: A Selected Bibliography

Susan Simmons

Colorado IV
May 22, 1996

	In this essay, I will explain my topic for this bibliography, the 
search steps and the domain (where items were found).  I will also discuss 
who the potential user of this bibliography should be and why I included 
what I did.  Finally, I will give some anecdotes of what happened during 
the search process.

	The general topic for this bibliography was "Technology in the 
Humanities."  I had a lot of difficulty in narrowing this topic and, after 
contacting the professors, narrowed the topic to "Television and the 
Humanities."  This bibliography includes general works on television and 
its effect on the humanities as well as television criticism from a 
humanities perspective.  There is also a section for the representation of 
specific parts of the humanities (art, music, literature) on television.  I 
discovered that much research about television has been done from a 
sociological/cultural perspective.  I tried to keep that aspect out of the 

	One of the first steps in the research was to define humanities.  The 
definition used here was from the American Heritage Dictionary, Second 
College Edition (1982).  This includes "those subjects, such as philosophy, 
literature and the fine arts, that are concerned with man and his culture 
as distinguished from the sciences."

	I began my search by photocopying the appropriate subject headings 
from the Library of Congress Subject Headings books.  Armed with this 
information, I began searching databases such as CARL, Chinook at CU-
Boulder, InfoTrack, EBSCO and several search engines on the Internet.  
Once I had a list of potential books I would go to the shelves to find them.  
In the general subject location of the shelves, I would graze for books.  
Often I evaluated every book in the section.

	I limited my search space to the greater Denver area because it was 
practical for me and it probably makes sense for my bibliography user to 
be able to find everything in one general area.  Much of my bibliography 
consists of books from CU-Boulder and Denver Public Library.  I have 
indicated in my bibliography where each source was found.

	I tried to keep my potential user in mind as I selected books for the 
bibliography.  I created this bibliography as if I were preparing to teach a 
graduate-level seminar on "Television and the Humanities."  As a result, 
some of the works are fairly technical in content and style.  To balance 
the technical works I included some books addressed to a more general 
audience.  This would help the students by providing a variety of sources 
and some items that are easy to read.

	I found that I had to include certain books that were older than I 
preferred.  I had originally tried to find sources that were not older than 
1990.  Some items were too important too omit because of age, and 
because the information is still valid, I included them.

	I paid close attention to the publisher of the works.  Most of the 
works were published by reputable publishers.  I also checked the 
biographies of the authors, when available, and most were academics in 
radio, film, television and communication disciplines.

	I tried to find as many book reviews as I could, but given that I did 
that at the last, I was not able to provide much review information.  I feel 
comfortable with the works I have included because of my new knowledge 
of television.  Many authors cited other authors, and I tried to include the 
most-cited ones.

	The annotations contain a brief summary of the book's subject 
matter, information about the author and a description of the structural 
features of the document.  For the potential audience of the work, I 
examine whether the book is too technical or too general.  Would it be 
interesting to a graduate-level class?

	One item that I found at the end of my research would have been 
helpful in the early stages of the search.  The book, Television Research, 
would have been a valuable resource in preparing this bibliography.  It 
contains a general overview of many topics relating to television.  It 
presents subtopics suitable for research papers and a bibliography for 
each topic.  As it was, I used the appendix to check the publishers for the 
books in my bibliography.  The appendix listed publishers that are known 
for publishing works on television.  In Television Research, I saw many of 
the authors that I had already included in my list.

	During the early stages of my search I had a "new paradigm" 
encounter with a librarian at Denver Public Library.  I was stuck in my 
search and, when she asked if I needed help, I asked if I could discuss my 
topic with her.  She identified a problem with my topic and helped me to 
clarify it.  She sat with me at the CARL terminal to help search.  She gave 
me some new ideas for search words and taught me some CARL shortcuts.  
As she left, she suggested that I call the local PBS stations to ask for 
ideas and see if there are any professional organizations that discuss 
television and the humanities.  I later found some information on such a 
group, but did not include it since it dated back to 1974.  

	The following is a selected bibliography of items relating to 
television and the humanities.  Enjoy!? 

General Humanities 

Beck, Kirsten.  Cultivating the Wasteland:  Can Cable Put the Vision Back 
in TV?.  New York:  American Council for the Arts (Edwards Brothers 
Printing), 1983.  (Denver Public Library)

	Although this book is dated, it provides a good history of cable and 
its support of the arts.  Cultivating the Wasteland gives a general 
overview of cable technology, accessibility and costs of production.

	Kirsten Beck is a consultant for arts and communications.  She has 
been active in the issues involved in cable television and its relationship 
to the arts.  This book is a joint effort of the American Council for the 
Arts and Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts.

	Beck began the book with the idea that cable was not going to 
further the arts, despite what the Reagan administration had said as it cut 
funding for the National Endowment for the Arts.  She found that it was 
true, that cable would not save the arts.  What she did find was a surprise; 
cable does have an effect on the arts, but at a local rather than national 
level.  Access and local origination channels were providing a new outlet 
for the arts in the community.

	Beck starts with an overview of how the cable system works.  She 
discusses commercial support of cable and cable channels that support the 
arts.  In "The CBS Cable Story", she presents a case history of the failure 
of the arts on cable. One chapter explains the difficulties and issues 
surrounding television production of the arts. The final chapters discuss 
accessibility, franchising, providing feedback to the cable industry and 
local access channels.  In an appendix, the Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts 
present information on "understanding television deals:"  copyright, 
contracts and negotiation.

	Cultivating the Wasteland contains a list of trade and service 
organizations for cable and the arts.  The book has a brief bibliography, 
but no index.

Bianculli, David.  Teleliteracy:  Taking Television Seriously.  New York:  
The Continuum Publishing Company, 1992.  (Denver Public Library)

	Teleliteracy was chosen for this bibliography at the recommendation 
of the professors.  The author of this book presents a strong argument to 
give television credit where credit is due.  In providing a defense of 
television, it addresses the treatment of the humanities on television.  
One chapter in particular, "Some Television is Literature -- And Vice 
Versa," is especially pertinent to the topic of television and the 

	Bianculli is a television critic for the New York Post who maintains 
that television is a medium to be taken seriously.  He begins the book with 
the "Teleliteracy Pretest" which compares one's knowledge of the classics 
to one's knowledge of television.  The purpose of the pretest is to show 
where television has come from and its impact on humanity.  The first 
section of the book explains the history of media throughout western 
civilization.  The second part defines Bianculli's argument in his "Media 
Manifesto."  In the last section, the author addresses some specific issues 
in detail.  The issues include children's television, television as a teaching 
tool and television's treatment of war.  

	This book has a conversational presentation style;  the author writes 
in first person and uses slang.  While it is aimed at a general rather than 
scholarly audience, it presents the well-formed thoughts and insights of a 
professional television viewer.  It is suitable for use with high school 
students through the graduate level.

	Teleliteracy contains an extensive bibliography which is organized 
by author.  In addition, several of the chapters are annotated with detailed 
references.  There are two indexes, one by name and one for titles of 
television programs.  The book lacks an index by subject which is a major 

Burns, Gary.  "Television and the Crisis in the Humanities."  Journal of 
Popular Film and Television, vol. 19, Fall 1991, pp. 98-105.  (Norlin 
Library, University of Colorado)

	"Television and the Crisis in the Humanities" is a call for increased 
study of television and other media to determine its effect on the 
humanities.  The author states that television is a natural part of the 
humanities in that it is concerned with literature and learning in human 
culture (Oxford English Dictionary definition of the humanities).

	The author of this article, Gary Burns, is an associate professor in 
communication studies at the University of Northern Illinois in Dekalb.  He 
is the co-editor of Making Television: Authorship and the Production 
Process (Praeger, 1990).  

	Burns takes exception to the conservative critiques of the 
humanities and liberal arts education, and especially to the criticism of 
media studies programs.  These conservative critics include William 
Bennett, Alan Bloom and others.  Burns proposes that more media studies 
should be included in curricula and that more research should be done to 
evaluate the effect of the media on the humanities.  This article is 
intended for those that determine college curricula, and not meant for 
general audiences.  

	The major problem with this article is that Burns spends too much 
time refuting the writings of the conservative critics.  This leaves little 
time for the development of his arguments.  This article features 
endnotes, but no bibliography.

Commission on the Humanities.  The Humanities in American Life.  
Berkeley, California:  University of California Press, 1980.  (Norlin 
Library, University of Colorado)

	This book is somewhat dated since it was published in 1980, but it 
provides an important overview of the status of the humanities in 
American life.  It includes a section on the humanities and the media, with 
specific information about television.  

	In April 1978, the Rockefeller Foundation decided to sponsor a 
Commission on the Humanities to examine the state of the humanities in 
American culture.  Members of the commission were drawn from 
academia, publishing, industry and the political arena.  The majority of the 
commission came from academia and the chairman was the former 
President of Stanford University.  

	The book is divided into five chapters.  The first chapter examines 
the domains of the humanities and offers recommendations and priorities 
for the future.  The next two chapters examine the humanities in the 
schools and in higher education.  The examination of television and the 
humanities falls under the category of the humanities in the community 
and private life.  Finally, the book details the problems and sources of 
financial support for the humanities.

	The first sentence of the media section sets the tone for the 
section:  "Although television, radio, and newspapers are not institutions 
of the same order as the others we have considered in this chapter, their 
educational functions are similar." (p. 140)  The main emphasis is on the 
programming from the Public Broadcasting System with a brief mention 
that commercial television has produced some works based on historical 
and ethical themes.  The chapter also mentions cable television as one 
possibility for promoting the humanities.

	This book is not intended for general audiences; its subject is too 
esoteric.  It is suitable for students of the humanities, although the 
information is somewhat dated.  The table of contents is quite helpful in 
that it shows chapter subheadings as well as headings.  The index is also 
good; it is very detailed in its subject headings and subheadings.

Ellis, John.  Visible Fictions:  Cinema:  Television:  Video, revised edition.  
London:  Routledge, 1992.  (Norlin Library, University of Colorado)

	This book is important in the study of television and the humanities 
in that it provides a deconstructionist view of the aesthetic of television.  
Ellis provides a philosophical overview of broadcast television sound, 
image and narration.

	John Ellis has been a film critic and associated with cinematic 
organizations.  His television experience includes heading a small 
production company from which he gained much practical experience.

	Visible Fictions is organized into three sections.  The first deals 
only with film, the second section applies to this bibliography; it 
discusses television.  The third section examines the relationship, 
similarities and differences of film and television.  The book contains a 
section on films and television programs cited.  The Selected Bibliography 
is not user-friendly in that the references are organized by chapter and 
hidden in explanatory text.  The "further reading" section contains many 
important works, although most are published in England. 

	This book, while not technical or detailed, is quite abstract in its 
subject matter.  It is suited for scholarly audiences.  The fact that this 
was written and published in England is not an issue because the content 
is more theoretical than illustrative.  There are few references to 
television programs, and those mentioned are often known to American 
viewers through public broadcasting.  Ellis also mentions American 
programs that are seen in Britain.

Federman, Raymond.  "The Last Stand of Literature."  ANQ, vol. ns5, Oct. 
1992, pp. 190-192.  (Norlin Library, University of Colorado)

	This article emphasizes literature and its relationship to television.  
Literature is a key element of the humanities.

	The author of this article, Raymond Federman, is associated with the 
State University of New York at Buffalo.  The original version of this 
essay was presented as a lecture in Munich as part of the conference, "The 
Fall of the Prophet -- Literature in Transition."

	The thrust of this article is that literature is endangered by the 
mass media, especially television.  The author explains that current 
literature is banal and conformist because of television.  Television is 
commercialized entertainment, while literature must be independent of 
such forces.  Literature must "oppose and denounce the way television 
captures the world".

	"The Last Stand of Literature" is a quick read with a very important 
message.  It is suitable for all levels of students, high school and above.  
This article has no bibliography, notes or index.

Fowles, Jib.  Why Viewers Watch:  A Reappraisal of Television's Effects, 
Revised Edition.  Newbury Park, California:  Sage Publications, Inc., 1992.  
(Norlin Library, University of Colorado)

	This book is included in this bibliography more for what it lacks 
than what it contains.  Like Bianculli, Fowles provides a strong defense of 
television.  The difference is that Fowles does not discuss television's 
humanities-promoting qualities.  Fowles discusses why people watch 
television -- for entertainment purposes only.  He maintains that through 
the entertainment, people obtain psychological benefits of relaxation, 
reduced aggression and education through television news programming.

	Jib Fowles is a professor of media studies at the University of 
Houston-Clear Lake.  He has written articles for the popular press and 
scholarly journals.  Fowles has written books about mass advertising and 
the public's response to celebrities.

	Why Viewers Watch is not technical, nor very detailed.  It is suitable 
for general readers.  Fowles states that he has avoided the use of jargon 
and tried to state his case as clearly as possible in order to appeal to 
students, teachers, specialists and non-specialists.  Fowles' book contains 
a section for references in which he cites books, journals and research 
studies.  The index appears to be quite extensive with subject headings 
and sub-headings.

Himmelstein, Hal.  On the Small Screen:  New Approaches in Television and 
Video Criticism.  New York:  Praeger Publishers, 1981.  (Boulder Public 

	Although this work is somewhat dated, it contains some valuable 
information about television as art and television criticism.  On the Small 
Screen was often cited in television-related works.

	Hal Himmelstein is a professor of radio and television at Ohio 
University in Athens, Ohio.  Himmelstein has published many articles on 
the subject of television, popular art and video.  He has interviewed 
artists in Access and Wide Angle.  Praeger is one of the publishing houses 
associated with television-related books.

	Himmelstein's first chapter applies directly to the topic of 
television and the humanities.  The author's intent is to "place television 
and video in the context of contemporary referents, namely art, 
entertainment, and culture."  (p. xiv)  Chapter two provides a general 
overview of television criticism and the critics who write it.  Chapters 
three through seven are interviews with various television critics.  Two 
of the critics are from the popular press, one is Horace Newcomb, an 
academic critic, and the other two are from the arts.

	Each chapter is formally annotated and there is an extensive 
bibliography at the end of the book.  The bibliography is difficult to use in 
that the entries are divided into books, journal and magazine articles, and 
newspaper articles.  If one were to look for all referenced material by a 
particular author, one would have to search in each section.  On the Small 
Screen contains a thorough index, which includes detailed subject 
headings and subheadings.

Jacobson, Ronald L..  Television Research:  A Directory of Conceptual 
Categories, Topic Suggestions and Selected Sources.  Jefferson, North 
Carolina:  McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 1995.  (Norlin Library, 
University of Colorado)

	Television Research is an incredibly useful book for scholarly 
research in various categories concerning television.  For a class studying 
television and the humanities, it would be a valuable source for the 
instructor or the students, in picking a research topic, for example.

	The book is published by McFarland, a publisher of television-related 
books.  No biographical information was available about the author.

	In the introduction, the author briefly describes the format and 
content.  He is careful to state that the book is not meant to be all-
inclusive; rather it is a starting point for television research.  Jacobson 
recommends that the expertise of a professional librarian for finding the 
most relevant sources available on the topic of interest.

	The book is divided into chapters with headings such as children, 
programming, social aspects and regulation/policy.  A short description of 
the category explains its scope and breadth.  Cross-references to other 
categories follow.  The next section gives approximately twenty sample 
topics that fit within the category.  A list of possible sources includes 
journal articles and books.

	The "additional sources" section at the end of the book includes a 
list of bibliographies; books on research methods and strategies; 
dictionaries and encyclopedias; directories and guides; annuals; abstracts, 
indexes and databases; newspapers, magazines, journals, and trade 
publications; libraries and museums; professional organizations; and 
publishers of television-related books.  After such a rich sources section, 
the index is somewhat of a disappointment.  It contains proper names and 
subject headings, but no sub-headings.

Kaplan, E. Ann, Editor.  Regarding Television:  Critical Approaches - An 
Anthology.  Frederick, Maryland:  University Publications of America in 
association with the American Film Institute, 1983.  (Boulder Public 
Library and Norlin Library, University of Colorado)

	This book was frequently mentioned in other sources chosen for this 
bibliography.  It is a collection of essays by humanities scholars.

	E. Ann Kaplan teaches film and literature at Rutgers University.  The 
other contributors to the book are all academics, mostly from film, 
broadcasting, English and history departments. This is the second book in a 
series published as the American Film Institute Monograph Series.  The 
other books are Cinema and Language, Re-Vision:  Essays in Feminist Film 
Criticism and Cinema Histories, Cinema Practices.

	In Kaplan's introduction, she explains that American universities 
have emphasized the technological, practical and sociological effects of 
television while ignoring the aesthetic of television.  This occurred 
because of the view of television as low art or popular culture -- "trivial, 
cheap and meaningless."( p. xii)  Kaplan notes that humanities-based 
television research began in England in the 1960's, but that this book is 
one of the first in the US.

	Following Kaplan's introduction is an essay that evaluates American 
writing on television.  This essay explains that journalists have not 
examined the "artistic specificity of medium," but have taken the stance 
of the "reviewer-as-cultural-crusader." (p. xiii)  The remaining essays 
discuss television news, sports, and soap operas.  The final essay 
examines video art as a medium for the future.

	Detailed notes follow each essay.  Kaplan assembled a selected 
bibliography for the end of the book.  The bibliography contains mostly 
references to periodical articles, which must surely be dated by now.  The 
book does not have an index -- a serious deficiency.  The beginning of the 
book has a section which outlines the current work of the essay 

Lichter, S. Robert, Lichter, Linda S., and Rothman, Stanley.  Prime Time:  
How TV Portrays American Culture.  Washington, DC:  Regnery Publishing, 
Inc., 1994.  (Denver Public Library)

	Prime Time summarizes the research of the Lichters and Rothman of 
how prime-time television reflects American society.  This book does not 
contain information about television and the humanities per se, but it 
gives important insight into the role of television in America today.

	Robert and Linda Lichter are the directors of the Center for Media 
and Public Affairs in Washington, DC   The CMPA is a group that monitors 
the role of mass media in American society.  Stanley Rothman is a 
professor at Smith College and directs the Center for the Study of Social 
and Political Change.  	Scholarly and 
popular press reviews praise Prime Time for its even-handed evaluation 
of television.  The reviews mention that the book is based on a large 
scientific study.  A review of Prime Time in the National Review (2/6/95) 
criticizes the authors for saying that the book is based on scientific 
analysis when it is basically television criticism.  The authors performed 
a survey of television critics, but the book does not explain how the 
critics were selected, nor how many critics were sampled.  The review 
also notes the book's right-leaning slant in that the authors suggest that 
television reflects the ideas of liberal producers, more than the 
population at large.  In a way, the authors call for the return of the golden 
days of television such as "Father Knows Best".

	Prime Time discusses television's treatment of sex, wealth, women, 
the work world, crime, and race, to name a few.  The authors present 
examples from television in the 1950's to the present to support their 
arguments.  The book is aimed at a general audience, but includes 
information in the appendix about the scientific research methods used in 
the study.  The book includes a detailed prologue and conclusion.  The 
chapters address the different issues of sex, sexism, race, etc.  There are 
detailed endnotes and an adequate index.

Marc, David.  Bonfire of the Humanities:  Television, Subliteracy and Long-
Term Memory Loss.  Syracuse, NY:  Syracuse University Press, 1995.  
(Woodbury Branch of Denver Public Library)

	Bonfire of the Humanities can be considered seminal work for the 
topic "Television and the Humanities."  This book directly addresses the 
relationship of the decline of the humanities in academia and the rise of 
such media as television.

	David Marc is a former television critic.  He has taught 
communications, writing, television, film and literature at many 
respected colleges and universities.  Marc is the author or co-author of 
several works (scholarly and for the popular press) about television.

	Bonfire of the Humanities speaks of an out-of-control bonfire 
consuming the humanities.  The bonfire is burning in a culture that has 
two aspects, one based on the printed and written word and the other on 
the mass media.  Marc presents seven of his essays including the decline 
of literacy, the reduction of memory, political correctness, yuppies and an 
overview of television criticism.  These essays provide a general 
overview of the subject.  Marc's writing is conversational; his tone is 
ironic and often angry.  It is quite easy to read, but a certain level of 
sophistication is required to fully understand the irony.  It is appropriate 
for the college-level student.

	The foreword is written by Susan J. Douglas, a professor in the 
School of Communication and Cognitive Science at Hampshire College.  The 
seven essays are annotated at the end of each segment.  A comprehensive 
bibliography is followed by an extensive index.  

National Endowment for the Humanities, "Media Log:  A Guide to Film, 
Television and Radio Programs Supported by the National Endowment for 
the Humanities."  Internet WWW page, at URL:  
http://www.neh.fed.us/documents/media1.html  (Version current at 20 
May 1996).

	This is an excellent resource for students of television and the 
humanities.  The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) has created 
a list of 800 radio, television and film productions for which it has 
provided funding.  The Media Log gives information about the format, 
content, production staff, length and awards 

of NEH-sponsored productions.

	One can access the entire index or search for subjects such as 
"World Culture and History" or "History, Theory, and Criticism of the Arts."  
Each entry provides information on how to acquire the film, video or radio 
program.  The entries have direct links to the distributor's address and 
phone numbers.

Newcomb, Horace, editor.  Television:  The Critical View, Second Edition.  
New York:  Oxford University Press, 1979.  (Denver Public Library)

	This important work is currently in its fifth edition (1994), but the 
book was not available at Norlin Library, University of Colorado.  This book 
was cited in many of the books listed in this bibliography.

	This series of critical essays about television is another attempt to 
study television seriously.  Newcomb divides the essays into three 
sections:  seeing television (individual programs), thinking about 
television (cultural issues) and defining television (the characteristics of 
the medium).  The section on defining television applies most to this 
bibliography.  It contains three essays on television aesthetics, video art 
and television melodrama.

	Horace Newcomb is a professor of English and Popular Culture at the 
University of Texas at Austin.  Newcomb is the author of TV:  The Most 
Popular Art (Doubleday, Anchor Press, 1974).  The other contributors come 
from academia or the popular press.

	Newcomb has provided an introduction to the book and introductions 
to each chapter.  He has also written a preface to the first and second 
editions.  The preface to the second edition explains why he has updated 
the book and why essays have been added or deleted.  He regrets having 
deleted any essays, but the ephemeral nature of television is part of the 
problem.  Newcomb would have liked to include everything in order to 
provide a history of television and a flow of television criticism.  

	Television:  The Critical View does not contain an index, notes or 
bibliography.  It does list the contributors and give a brief biographical 
note for each one.

Postman, Neil.  Amusing Ourselves to Death:  Public Discourse in the Age 
of Show Business.  New York:  Penguin Books, 1985.  (Boulder Public 

	Postman's book is mentioned in much of the literature about 
television for his controversial viewpoint.  The premise of his book, 
Amusing Ourselves to Death, is that  American society has become "a 
trivial culture" as in Aldous Huxley's Brave New World.  Television is much 
to blame for this trivial culture which has resulted in a lack of public 
discourse, one of the elements of the humanities.

	Neil Postman is a professor of communication arts and sciences at 
New York University.  He is the editor of Et Cetera, a journal of general 
semantics.  His books include The Disappearance of Childhood and, more 
recently, Technopoly.

	Postman's style of writing is bombastic and sarcastic, which may be 
offensive to some.  The book is easy to read and is suitable for general 
audiences as well as scholarly ones.  The book is not technical; it merely 
presents Postman's commentary on American culture.  In part I, Postman 
describes the history of the printed and spoken word in America in an 
effort to show what once existed.  Part II details the effect that 
television has had on religion, politics and education.

	Amusing Ourselves to Death has an endnotes section, a bibliography 
and an index.  All of these are sufficient for this type of book.

Quality Time?  The Report of the Twentieth Century Fund Task Force on 
Public Television with background paper "Public Television:  The Ballpark's 
Changing," by Richard Somerset-Ward.  New York:  The Twentieth Century 
Fund Press, 1993.  (Denver Public Library).    

	The major purveyor of the humanities in the United States is the 
Public Broadcasting System.  It is the only non-commercial version of 
television available to US citizens.  This book reports on the health and 
future of public television.

	The Twentieth Century Fund decided to establish a task force to 
perform a study of the state of public television.  The Carnegie Report in 
1979 was the last major analysis public television prior to the Twentieth 
Century Fund Task Force.

	Richard Somerset-Ward, formerly of the BBC, and now a consultant 
in private practice, provided an in depth report of public television 
including its history, financial status, goals and programming.  Of 
particular interest to the topic "Television and the Humanities" is the 
section on programming.  The first recommendation of the committee is 
also very pertinent.  It states, "The mission of public television should be 
the enrichment and strengthening of American society and culture through 
high-quality programming that reflects and advances our basic values."

	This book is not appropriate for a general audience, but a specialized 
audience such as a graduate seminar would benefit from its content.  
Quality Time contains a lot of statistics and financial data.  The first 
section of the book is the report from the task force, followed by specific 
comments from task force members who did not agree with the final 
result.  Somerset-Ward's paper follows the task force report.  The entire 
book is annotated and an adequate index exists.

Rose, Brian.  Television and the Performing Arts:  A Handbook and 
Reference Guide to American Cultural Programming.  Westport, 
Connecticut:  Greenwood Press, 1986.  (Denver Public Library)

	Television and the Performing Arts is a seminal work for this 
bibliography.  In this book, Rose presents an aesthetic, economic and 
historical perspective of televising the performing arts.

	Brian Rose is a professor at Fordham University at Lincoln Center.  
He has written and edited several books about television genres.  His 
articles have appeared in the International Encyclopedia of Dance, The 
Journal of Popular Film and Television, The Journal of Communication and 
Television Quarterly.  

	Rose's approach to the performing arts on television is quite 
straightforward.  The book is organized in sections labeled "Dance on 
Television," "Classical Music on Television," "Opera on Television" and 
"Theater on Television."  In each section he begins with a history of the 
performing art, discusses the effect of commercial, public and cable 
television on the presentation of the arts, and then concludes his thoughts.  
Each chapter is followed by a lengthy notes section, "references" (more 
notes in narrative form), and a selected bibliography of books, articles, 
dissertations and videography.  The index at the end of the book contains 
very few subject headings; most of the entries are names of works, people 
and television stations.

	Dance Research Journal's review of this book is predominantly 
positive.  The main criticisms center on Rose's discussion of aesthetic 
issues and his method of citing other works.  The reviewer calls for 
clearer citations and improved cross-referencing.

	Television and the Performing Arts is a scholarly work, yet is 
interesting and easy to read.  It contains more detail than the casual 
reader would need, but probably would be too general for the serious 
researcher.  This work would be suitable for college-level students for 
study of the history, economic and logistical issues of staging performing 
arts on television. 

Rose, Brian.  Televising the Performing Arts:  Interviews with Merrill 
Brockway, Kirk Browning and Roger Englander.  Westport, Connecticut:  
Greenwood Press, 1992.  (Norlin Library, University of Colorado)

	Televising the Performing Arts presents Brian Rose's interviews 
with three key players in putting the performing arts on television.  This 
book gives a personal history of the struggles of producing and directing 
the performing arts on television.

	See the annotation for Television and the Performing Arts for Brian 
Rose's biographical information.

	The interviews in this book provide an inside look at the careers and 
experiences of three men who brought concerts, opera and ballet to 
television.  The book begins with an introduction in which Rose gives a 
brief history of the performing arts on television.  It is quite similar to 
his previous book.  The remainder of the book is made up of dialogue 
between Rose and Merrill Brockway, Kirk Browning and Roger Englander.  
The final chapter documents a meeting of the author with all three men.  
At the end of each interview, Rose has included a professional chronology 
for the interviewees.  It would have been more helpful to have these 
timelines at the beginning of the interviews for a point of reference.  Rose 
includes a black and white photograph of each director at the beginning of 
the chapter.   This adds an extra element of personality to the interview.

	This book is not technical, and it is meant for a specialized 
audience.  It would be appropriate for students studying at television and 
the humanities, but is more anecdotal than educational.  The merit would 
be in learning about the difficulties experienced in staging ballet, etc. for 
television.  The dialogue style of the book makes it difficult to extract 
specific information.  In this respect, the index is severely lacking. 

Tichi, Cecelia.  Electronic Hearth:  Creating an American Television 
Culture.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1991.  (Denver Public 

	Tichi presents the idea that television is an environment through her 
analysis of forty years of advertisements, cartoons, fiction and 
journalism.  The book contains two chapters which relate to television and 
the humanities.  The remainder of the book establishes her idea of the 
electronic hearth as central to American society.

	Cecelia Tichi is a professor of English at Vanderbilt University.  She 
is the author of Shifting Gears:  Technology, Literature, Culture in 
Modernist America.  Electronic Hearth is published by the Oxford 
University Press.

	Electronic Hearth would appeal to general audiences in that it 
contains many anecdotes relating television to the development of modern 
culture.  Tichi presents her ideas how the television became an electronic 
hearth, how it relates to leisure and labor, and how Americans view 
television in conflicting ways.  People talk of television being a hypnotic 
drug, yet they talk back to it and interact with it.  Tichi defines 
teleconsciousness as being able to split attention between multiple 
channels (as in channel surfing) and real life.  

	The chapter on "Two Cultures and the Battle by the Books" discusses 
the battle between television and the printed word, that the two are 
natural enemies despite the fact that television often produces high 
culture representations of fiction.  The humanities is also presented in 
Tichi's discussion of television's representation of comics, movies, music 
and art in the final chapter.

	The book contains a lengthy bibliography, but the index is skimpy.  
Publishers Weekly states that the book is full of fresh insights on the 
influence of television on personal behavior.  

Vande Berg, Leah and Wenner, Lawrence.  Television Criticism:  Approaches 
and Applications.  White Plains, New York:  Longman, 1991.  (Norlin 
Library, University of Colorado)

	This textbook on styles of television criticism is included because 
much of the information about television and the humanities is written by 
television critics.  Students learning about television and the humanities 
should be aware of different critical methods employed.

	Leah Vande Berg teaches in the communications studies department 
at California State in Sacramento.  Lawrence Wenner is the associate dean 
of the College of Arts and Sciences and teaches in the communications 
department at the University of San Francisco.  The other critics who 
contributed to the book are academics from all across the United States.

	Television Criticism gives an overview of different critical methods 
used to analyze television.  Each contributor provides an introduction and 
overview of the critical analysis.  Throughout the analysis there are notes 
in the margin which explain the techniques used or ask questions.  The 
critical analyses are organized by television genre.  The first table of 
contents reflects this organization; the second table of contents 
organizes the analyses by critical method.

	This text is naturally designed for students or academics in media 
studies.  The level of detail and technical language are appropriate for the 
academic setting.  Each critical analysis is followed by a section of 
references and recommended reading.  The index appears to be adequate.

Williams, Martin T.  Hidden in Plain Sight:  An Examination of the American 
Arts.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1992.  (Denver Public Library)

Williams, Martin T.  TV:  The Casual Art.  New York:  Oxford University 
Press, 1982.  (Boulder Public Library)

	These books are listed together because the gist of Williams' 
message is much the same in both books.  In fact, Hidden in Plain Sight 
contains an essay on the art of television that is identical to chapters in 
TV:  The Casual Art.  Williams' books are included because of his 
discussion of television as art.  His examples of art include "The Rocky 
and Bullwinkle Show" and "Quick Draw McGraw".

	Martin Williams is a former television critic turned Program 
Director in the Division of Performing Arts at the Smithsonian Institution.  
He has written and edited a number of books on television, jazz and 
American culture.  

	Hidden in Plain Sight celebrates the art in American culture in a 
series of essays.  Williams states that Americans believe the only good 
art forms come from Europe.  His essays cite examples of motion picture 
drama, jazz, the modern detective story, comic strips and television 
programs as uniquely American art forms or genres. 

	Both books have adequate indexes.  The indexes have single line 
entries with mostly proper names or show titles.  Williams' books are for 
general audiences, although some references may be unfamiliar to the 
casual reader.  TV:  The Casual Art is somewhat dated in its references to 
television programming, but the author's faith in TV is still pertinent.

Specific Areas of the Humanities

Bulman, J.C. and Coursen, H.R., editors.  Shakespeare on Television:  An 
Anthology of Essays and Reviews.  Hanover, New Hampshire:  University 
Press of New England, 1988.  (Norlin Library, University of Colorado)

	Shakespeare on Television is included in this bibliography as a type 
of book that addresses a very narrow section of the humanities on 
television.  Jane Austen's Emma on Television, also in this bibliography, is 
the same type of book.

	Shakespeare on Television is a collection of essays that discuss the 
presentation of Shakespeare plays for television.  (This book does not 
include any works that were made for film, but are now available on 
videocassette.)  The first section of the book contains essays which 
generally address the problems and successes of televising Shakespeare 
plays.  The second part of the book has essays which address specific 
productions or specific plays.  This section is divided into the tragedies, 
comedies and histories.  Bulman and Coursen present their ideas on 
reviewing Shakespeare for television in the final section.  Nearly seventy 
pages of actual reviews follow in chronological order.

	J.C. Bulman is affiliated with Allegheny College, while H.R. Coursen 
comes from Bowdoin College.  One of the immediate faults of this book is 
that it does not contain biographical information about the editors, nor 
the contributors.

	The table of contents lists all of the plays examined.  This list 
shows the date broadcast, the network on which it was shown and the 
page number on which it is reviewed.  The appendix contains an annotated 
bibliography, videography and a limited index.  The index lists only the 
play title and version.

Dayan, Daniel and Katz, Elihu.  Media Events:  The Live Broadcasting of 
History.  Cambridge, Massachusetts:  Harvard University Press, 1992.  
(Denver Public Library)

	This book emphasizes one area of the humanities, namely history.  
The premise of Media Events is that television makes live "historical" 
events into world rituals.  These rituals change societies by bringing them 
together to some extent.

	Elihu Katz and Daniel Dayan are both faculty members at the 
Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Southern 
California.  Katz is the Scientific Director at the Guttman Institute of 
Applied Social Research as well as a professor at the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem.  Dayan is a Fellow of the Centre National de la Recherche 
Scientifique in Paris.  The book was published by the Harvard University 

	In the first chapter, the authors present the idea of media events as 
providing "societal integration".  Chapter two explains the major themes 
that these media events play:  Contest (the Olympics), Conquest (the 
Pope's first visit to Poland) and Coronation (John F. Kennedy's funeral).  
The next three chapters describe the set-up, "performance" and 
"celebration" of the events, looking at the perspective of the organizers, 
broadcasters and audience.  The final chapters examine the magic of the 
events and analyze specific examples. 	The content and 
presentation of Media Events is slightly beyond the capabilities of the 
casual reader.  The book jacket celebrates this book as required reading 
for mass communications students.  It is certainly appropriate for 
students of television and the humanities.  

	The chapters include some informative graphs.  There is a detailed 
notes section at the end of the book.  The bibliography appears to be quite 
good and the index, while brief, has detailed subject headings.  The 
acknowledgments section is placed in the middle of the appendices, which 
seems rather unusual.

Goodwin, Andrew.  Dancing in the Distraction Factory:  Music Television 
and Popular Culture.  Minneapolis:  University of Minnesota Press, 1992.  
(Norlin Library, University of Colorado)

	Dancing in the Distraction Factory was chosen because of its 
treatment of music on television.  Goodwin uses MTV as a case study 
because of his interest in it, as well as MTV's success and relative 

	Andrew Goodwin is an associate communication arts professor at 
the University of San Francisco.  He provides criticism for several 
newspapers as well as co-editing two journals, Understanding Media and 
Media, Culture & Society.  

	Goodwin first attempts to synthesize an economic/historical 
institutional analysis, text analysis from film and television studies and 
musicology.  His second purpose is to provide a textual analysis of music 
videos from a sociological and musicological perspective.  Finally, he 
connects specific issues about music with the rock culture and how it 
corresponds to music television.  The information in this book is very 
detailed and technical for the general reader, but it would be appropriate 
for a scholarly audience.  

	The book is organized to develop the themes presented above.  In the 
first chapter he discusses postmodernism, and then proceeds to explain 
the development of music television. The last chapter provides a good 
conclusion and summary of his arguments.  The music television timeline 
that follows the last chapter is the highlight of the book.  It provides the 
chronology of great musical events on television beginning in 1921.

	Dancing in the Distraction Factory has a good set of notes and an 
excellent bibliography.  The index is rather brief, but contains cross-
references as well as subject entries.

Hall, Doug and Fifer, Sally Jo, Editors.  Illuminating Video:  An Essential 
Guide to Video Art.  New York:  Aperture Foundation, Inc., 1990.  (Denver 
Public Library)

	Illuminating Video provides an overview of an art form that has 
emerged from the world of television.  The authors acknowledge that video 
art had its beginnings in television, yet has become its own legitimate 
genre.  Television still has an enormous impact on video art, conceptually 
and physically.

	Doug Hall is the chairperson of the performance/video department at 
the San Francisco Art Institute.  Sally Jo Fifer is the editor of Video 
Networks, and works as the Program and Development Director at the Bay 
Area Video Coalition.  The Aperture Foundation "publishes a periodical, 
books and portfolios of fine photography to communicate with serious 
photographers and creative people everywhere."  The book was published 
with the support of the National Endowment for the Arts Media, Arts 
National Services and the Arts Visual Artists Forums, as well as the 
Rockefeller Foundation and the Zellerbach Family Fund.

	The purpose of Illuminating Video "is to construct a base from which 
we can address the issues that are raised by video." (p. 27)  The book 
contains a collection of essays, categorized by Histories; 
Furniture/Sculpture/Architecture; Audience/Reception:  Access/Control; 
Syntax and Genre; and Telling Stories.  A general history of video art is 
given in Histories, although the authors state that it is far from being a 
definitive history of the field.  The Furniture chapter deals with the 
television set as a physical entity.  In the Audience/Reception chapter, 
"the authors look at television as a system of representation and discuss 
video art's role in establishing strategies for questioning its 
representational hegemony."  (p. 21)  The chapter Syntax and Genre 
explains that video artists are attempting to take the art form beyond the 
"restrictive (and purely aesthetic) perceptions of modernism."  (p. 23)  
Telling Stories contains essays that attempt to describe, not analyze 
video art. 

	Illuminating Video is not a technical work, yet it may not be 
appropriate for the general reader; its content is esoteric.  It would be 
appropriate for art students or communications students.  

	This book contains excellent photographs as examples as examples 
of video art.  There are notes for each essay, biographies for each 
contributor, a twenty-page bibliography, nine-page videography and an 
adequate index.

Kaplan, E. Ann.  Rocking Around the Clock:  Music Television, 
Postmodernism, and Consumer Culture.  New York:  Methuen, 1987.  (Norlin 
Library, University of Colorado)

	This book was cited in several other books in this bibliography.  It is 
a study of music on television in the form of MTV.  

	E. Ann Kaplan is a professor of film and literature at Rutgers 
University.  Her books include Women in Film Noir and Women and Film:  
Both Sides of the Camera.  She edited Regarding Television which is also 
included in this bibliography.

	Kaplan discusses "MTV:  advertising and production," "History, 
'reading formations,' and the televisual apparatus in MTV," "MTV and the 
avant-garde:  the emergence of a postmodernist anti-aesthetic?," 
"Ideology, adolescent desire, and the five types of video on MTV," and 
"Gender address and the gaze in MTV."  She concludes with a chapter on 
postmodernism.  It is interesting to note that Kaplan received no 
assistance from MTV in writing this book, despite her efforts to contact 

	This work is well-suited for the college student.  It may be too 
advanced for high school students.  Rocking Around the Clock provides a 
detailed analysis of the MTV culture.  Kaplan states that it is difficult to 
pin this culture down. Typically postmodern, once it is identified, it 
changes.  This is an interesting work that would fit nicely in a curriculum 
for television and the humanities. 

	The book contains stills from music videos.  While the stills are 
dramatic, the quality of the photographs is poor.  Rocking Around the Clock 
has an afterword, extensive notes, a videography, bibliography and index.  
The book also contains a select glossary compiled by Kaplan and one of her 
colleagues.  The glossary contains definitions for words such as 
representation, semiology, ideology and classical cinema.

	Roger Kimball, as quoted in Burns' "Television and the Crisis in the 
Humanities" (also in this bibliography), provides a scathing review of 
Rocking Around the Clock in his book Tenured Radicals:  How Politics Has 
Corrupted Our Higher Education (Harper Collins, 1990).  Kimball is a 
conservative of the likes of Allan Bloom and William Bennett.  Kimball's 
attack on Kaplan is for the topic of her research -- music television, 
rather than the content.  He assumes that because the book is about MTV, 
it must be bad.  Kimball also criticizes Kaplan's writing for her use of 
jargon, equivocation and passive verbs which makes her meaning unclear.

Lauritzen, Monica.  Jane Austen's Emma on Television:  A Study of a BBC 
Classic Serial.  Goteborg, Sweden:  Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis 
(Minab Press), 1981.  (Norlin Library, University of Colorado)

	Jane Austen's Emma on Television is included in this bibliography as 
a type of book that addresses a very narrow section of the humanities on 
television.  Shakespeare on Television, also in this bibliography, is a 
similar type of book.  

	Monica Lauritzen is a professor at a Swedish university.  The book 
was published as part of the Gothenburg Studies in English.

	Emma on Television is a study of the adaptation of Jane Austen's 
Emma by the BBC for the Classic Serials Series.  This series began in 1951 
with a production of Anthony Trollope's The Warden.  This book includes a 
videography of Classic Serials made by the BBC between 1951 and 1972.

	This book includes information about the BBC Classic Serials, 
Lauritzen's comparison of the television production process to Jane 
Austen's own situation, a comparison of the plots of the novel and the 
television serial and a discussion of the differences between the two 
genres of television and novel. 

	The book includes still frame photographs from the television 
production.  The photographs are quite good.  The notes section is unusual 
in that one must consult the bibliography for the entire reference.  Many of 
the works in the bibliography are in Swedish or German.  Appendix I 
contains the production staff and cast for the television production, 
Appendix II lists interview questions Lauritzen used in interviewing 
production staff and cast members, and Appendix III lists the novels 
adapted to BBC television from 1951 to 1972.

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