For my annotated bibliography topic, I was given Ritual and Information. I had trouble with this topic at first. I understood the meaning of ritual and of information separately, but not together. When I entered these two terms together in the different library computer catalogs I searched, the terms did not bring up anything. However, when the words were typed into the computer separately, many books were listed. I finally E-mailed my professors for a clarification on my topic. They E-mailed back that I should consider looking into the field of anthropology and the information conveyed by ritual practices. I then narrowed my topic down to books that contained information on the Native American rituals and ceremonies of the United States Southwest. I included ceremonies because when I began to look through the books I had, most of them did not list rituals as a separate index subject heading but included them under ceremonies. Once I went to a particular page reference concerning a ceremony, I found that the rituals associated with it were discussed. I E-mailed my revised topic to the professors who thought it a fine idea. They did suggest I include some general theoretical books on just why humans need/use ritual. This I have done. Once I had narrowed my topic down to a more manageable one, I then decided who my audience would be and what their information requirements were. The professors for the class had already said that my audience would be graduate students enrolled in a graduate seminar on my topic. For this reason, I decided that my bibliography would not try to list every book or journal article on the subject, but would instead, list a selected collection of the most highly regarded, unusual, and useful works on the subject. I began my search in the Denver Public Library computer catalog. I used a variety of search terms. I started with the term Native Americans - U.S. Southwest. This combination only brought up a few books. I then decided to try the non-politically correct term Indians of the U.S. Southwest. This combination brought up many books. I then looked at the Library of Congress subject headings and used those to locate more books. For the rest of my computer searches, I added the terms religion, ritual, ceremonies, and rites. I did not use the term Native American again. I was surprised that the term was not being used more often in cataloging. I assume that the Library of Congress has not changed their subject heading yet and that is why so few books are cataloged that way. The books that I found here, contained excellent bibliographies from which I selected additional books that I thought might be interesting. Unfortunately, Denver did not own them or they were checked out. I moved my search to an academic library. When I finished searching the Denver Public Library, I shifted my search to the Auraria Library. Here I used the same word combinations that I used at the Denver Public Library. I found many of the works that I included in my bibliography at this library. While the Auraria Library contained a large resource base for my topic, I felt that I needed to also search some additional databases. Using the same terms as in my previous search, I went through the combined computer catalog of the Arapahoe and Aurora Library Districts and found more books that were useful in preparing my bibliography. The databases found in FirstSearch, primarily WorldCat which contains the catalogs of over 18,000 libraries and their holdings including books, journals, maps, and audiovisual materials, were also consulted. For locating journal articles, I used InfoTrac and articles listed in the bibliographies of the different books that I found. After examining many of these articles, I came to the realization that most of the writers of these articles later expanded them into book format and that I had many of these books. Because of this finding, I decided to include only books in my bibliography. The last place I conducted my search was on the Internet/WorldWide Web. For this search, I did use the term Native American along with the names of specific Native American tribes. I had more luck with these terms than in my previous searches, probably because this resource is newer than the others and the contributors to it do not go by Library of Congress subject headings. While I did locate several very interesting home pages relating to Native Americans, these pages dealt more with current issues and events and not with rituals and ceremonies. Once my search was completed, I began the process of evaluating my sources and arranging them into a suitable format. For the evaluation, I used as my criteria the items that the professors listed on their handout for inclusion in the annotation. I chose mainly books that were published by university presses. I attempted to locate biographical data on the author's whose works I intended to include in my bibliography. I consulted Contemporary Authors, Current Biography, and the book jacket and foreword of the book for clues to the author's credentials. In a few cases, I was unable to locate any biographical material on the author. When this occurred, I based my evaluation on whether the writer had been positively mentioned by another, well respected authority in his or her subject field. I also used reviews for the books I had chosen to help judge a work's quality. Since many of my books were scholarly in nature, I used the Combined Retro Index to Book Reviews in Scholarly journals 1886-1974 to search for book reviews. I also found reviews for some of my books in Book Review Index. I did not have much luck with Book Review Digest. When I was unable to find a review or to obtain a copy of the journal in which the book was reviewed, I either used the Foreword written by someone else or a quote from a reviewer found on the book jacket. The user will notice that many of the books included in this bibliography were published sometime ago. These works were used because they are considered the authoritative books on that specific topic and later writers constantly refer back to them. When the evaluation process was finished, I then began the task of organizing the information that I had collected. Since the bibliography is intended for use in a graduate seminar, the books that have been included were selected for several different purposes in mind. The reasons for their selection are: technical detail on the subject, general overview provided, evolution of the ceremonies and rituals, and primary accounts of both past and modern ceremonies and rituals. I have included a variety of specific/non-specific books. By this, I mean that some of the books contain a collection of information regarding different peoples found in the Southwest while others are written on only one specific tribe, like the Hopi. Books containing first person experiences with the people of the Southwest have also been used. The books contained in this bibliography cover ceremonies and rituals from before contact with Europeans occurred, up to the present day. The bibliography is divided into four parts. The first part contains books on ritual theory. These books are intended for the graduate student who needs a background in the theories of why people need and use ritual. In the second part, are books that focus on rituals and ceremonies of various tribes of the Southwest. In many of these works, information is contained on the smaller tribes on which few if any books have been written. The books range from information on a specific ritual aspect found in the Southwest to more general books on the religions and the ceremonies and rituals found in the area. The graduate student would use these works as an overview on the subject. In the third part, books written on specific Native American peoples are listed. The graduate student would read these books in order to study more in depth, a certain group. The last part contains a book that I was unable to obtain because it was checked out or missing at the libraries that had it, and was not available through inter-library loan, but which I feel would be of use to the graduate student in the area of ritual theory. Ritual Theory Bell, Catherine. Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. This work was chosen for the information that it contains regarding why humans need and use ritual. The book is also useful in showing the reader one of the new directions in which the field is moving, by presenting the author's theory on the subject of ritual. The scholarly focus of the book makes it suitable for graduate level students. The author analyzes the category of ritual and proposes another framework to assess ritual activity. In order to accomplish this goal, the book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses the history of the subject and the various theories that have been proposed for why humans use and need ritual. In the second part, the author's new framework for her theory of ritual is presented. She proposes "a focus on 'ritualization' as a strategic way of acting and then turn to explore how and why this way of acting differentiates itself from other practices" (7). In the third part, the author uses her new framework to demonstrate that ritual is used to create a limited, ever changing power relationship among social groups. The book is well organized, containing an index, notes section, and a detailed bibliography from which students who wish to read additional books on the subject may refer. The reviewer for the Journal of Religion, April 1993, vol. 73 page 289, 501, found the work to be very well done. de Waal Malefijt, Annemarie. Religion and Culture: An Introduction to Anthropology of Religion. New York: Macmillan, 1968. Annemarie de Waal Malefijt, Professor of Anthropology at Hunter College City University of New York, has written an excellent introductory book on the many aspects of religion, including theories on why humans need and use ritual. The theories of ritual are discussed within the broader scope of religion providing a well rounded coverage of the subject of religion and ritual. This book is well suited to the graduate student who needs a refresher on the topic or for the student who has had very little exposure to the topic of religion and the theories that are associated with it. The book is divided into chapters, Ritual is ch. 7 page 172, and has a well organized bibliography arranged alphabetically. The author uses in-text citation. The book was well reviewed. As the reviewer for the History of Religion, May 1970, vol. 9 no. 4, page 344, commented, "as an introductory course book to religion for students of anthropology, this is a very useful book." Grimes, Ronald L. Beginnings in Ritual Studies. rev. ed. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1995. This book was included because of its multi-disciplinary coverage of the study of ritual theory. The author, Professor of Religion and Culture at Wilfrid Laurier University in Waterloo, Canada, focuses not only on religious ritual theory but also ritual theory in other academic disciplines. According to Grimes, students of ritual "are isolated from one another in various fields: liturgics, religious studies, anthropology, drama..." even though they are studying the same basic concepts of ritual and that all of these areas are actually shoots sprouting from a common center, "the academic study of ritual"(xxvi). This work is arranged in parts and further divided into chapters which are actually short essays covering specific topics. The topics covered deal with ritual's relationship to the religious, civil, medical, and theatrical aspects of human culture and the reasons why humans need and use ritual in these areas. In addition to these topics, the author discusses the various theories of ritual that are in existence. The book contains end notes, bibliography, and a detailed index. The work is useful to the graduate student who is entering the field of ritual studies and wishes to become more familiar with the many areas, besides religious studies, included in the broad label of ritual theory. The reviewer for the Journal of the American Academy of Religion states that "no one has moved through this field with such verve, imagination, and playful intelligence as Grimes does." Quote taken from the back cover of book. Books on Rituals and Ceremonies of North American Southwestern Native Americans Collier, John. On the Gleaming Way: Navajos, Eastern Pueblos, Zunis, Hopis, Apaches, and Their Land; and Their Meanings to the World. Denver: Sage Books, 1962. This book was included because of the author's first hand accounts of these Southwestern peoples and their ceremonies and rituals. The author's association with Native Americans began in 1922 as executive secretary of the American Indian Defense Association. Later, he was the U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs from 1933-1945 and later still Professor of Sociology and Anthropology at City College New York. His coverage of the these people is mainly based upon his experiences when living among them. Descriptions are given of the areas in which they live and their histories. First hand accounts are given for various ceremonies and rituals both religious and secular and the meanings behind them. This book is best suited to students who wish an overview of these people and their customs. The book is organized by chapters. Unfortunately, the author did not include an index which makes it difficult to go directly to the subject areas of ceremonies and rituals. Instead, one must read each chapter to find the sections dealing with these topics. The author also did not include a bibliography. He relied mainly upon his own knowledge of these peoples. When he does refer to an outside source, such as Clyde Kluckhohn's work on the Navajos, it is cited in the text. The organization of the book makes accessing the useful information that it contains difficult but well worth the effort. The reviewer for the Southwest Review, 1962, vol. 47 no. 3, page viii, found the work to be very interesting despite the lack of an index. Collins, John James. Native American Religions: A Geographical Survey. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen, 1991. This book is useful for the fact that the author has taken other more in depth works on a single Native American tribe and has extracted the information concerning ceremonies and rituals contained within them and has brought them all together into this one volume. This work is also helpful since it attempts to discuss the rituals and ceremonies of the Native Americans as they existed at the time that European contact occurred. The information is organized by geographic regions covering all of North America. The first chapters deal with the tribes of the Southwest, giving a brief cultural history, and are then followed by chapters on their religious ceremonies and rituals. The book has two indexes. One is an index of the tribes and language groupings that are specifically mentioned and the second index is of the religious rites mentioned by name. The indexes are mildly helpful in telling you what is in the book. However, while pages are given for specific tribes and names of rituals, the reader still must go to each page listed in order to determine which ceremony is being discussed for that tribe on that page or which tribes participate in a ceremony that is listed in the second index. The author does provide a bibliography and references at the end of each grouping of chapters dealing with a specific people. This format is helpful in permitting the reader to look only at sources for the tribes that interest him or her. The reader is then able to locate sources that are more in depth on a particular tribe. As the author states in his introduction, this work "is not meant for the specialist in such studies" but is directed "to the general reader and to college students who are interested in American Indian culture"(xvii). Curtis, Edward S. The North American Indian. vols.. 1, 2,12. Ed. Weston La Barre. New York: Johnson Reprint, 1970. 20vols. These volumes, originally published in 1907 and 1922, contain information on the Apache, Jicarillas, Navaho, Hopi and other minor tribes of the U.S. Southwest. The major ceremonies and rituals of these peoples are discussed along with other cultural information. This work was included not only because of this coverage, but also because of the photographs of these people in their ritual dress. The author's field was mainly that of a photographer and he has included many of his photographs in these volumes. The actual research and field work, besides that of the photographer, appears to have been done by W. W. Phillips and W. E. Myers, beginning in 1898, who the author acknowledges for their assistance in collecting and arranging the material for these volumes in his introduction. These books are useful for college students who are seeking first hand, detailed accounts of these tribes and their ceremonies and rituals. Students who are visual learners will also find the books of interest because of the black and white photograph's of these people in their ritual outfits. Each volume is organized by chapters covering specific topics and tribes. The index is very detailed. A bibliography and references are not included and the reader must assume that the information presented is from the author's and his assistants field research. The reader of today must also overlook the condescending and flowery language of the writers towards the Native Americans of the Southwest and realize that underneath it, is some useful information concerning their ceremonies and rituals. As Theodore Roosevelt states in the Foreword, Edward S. Curtis "has not only seen their [Native Americans] vigorous outward existence, but has caught glimpses, such as few white men ever catch, into that strange spiritual and mental life of theirs" and by publishing this book he "is rendering a real and great service...to the world of scholarship everywhere." Dutton, Bertha P. American Indians of the Southwest. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994. This work was included because it offers a current, well researched introduction of the history of the Native Americans of the Southwest in the United States, a contemporary view of tribal affairs, and a view of the cultural and social characteristics that are unique to each group. The book is intended as a background source which the college student would first read before going on to the other books contained in this bibliography. The author worked for the Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe in the Anthropology Division. When she left the museum, she was the curator of that department. She later went on to become the director of the Museum of Navajo Ceremonial Art until she left that position in 1975 and went into business for herself. The author has divided her book into chapters that cover the specific people who live in the Southwest. She uses in-text citation and has an extensive bibliography and a well organized index. As Charlotte J. Frisbie, of Southern Illinois University, stated on the back of the book's cover, "sound and informative and should be starred reading for all those with an awakening interest in Southwestern Indians, arts and crafts, and contemporary Indian affairs." Frisbie, Charlotte J., ed. Southwestern Indian Ritual Drama. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1980. This book is a fascinating collection of papers prepared for an advanced seminar sponsored by the School of American Research in 1978. The editor, Charlotte J. Frisbie, Department of Anthropology, Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville, has done an excellent job of organizing the book which is broken down into chapters, with each chapter representing one paper on a certain ritual. Each of the participants wrote about an aspect of music or dance that appears in the ritual drama of the Southwest. The rituals covered are Zuni Kachina Society Songs, Hopi Ogres Drama, Picuris Deer Dance, Mescalero Apache Girls' Puberty Ceremony, Navajo House Blessing Ceremony, Navajo Shootingway, Papago Skipping Dance, and Havasupai Song. This work was chosen because of the detailed and well researched papers covering the above topics and is meant to be read by graduate level students who wish to read a more in depth book after having finished the other books contained in this section of the bibliography. A notes section is included for each paper at the end of each chapter while a reference section for the whole book is provided at the end. The index is also very well done and detailed. Broad subject headings are given and then the specific information under the headings is arranged alphabetically. The book was very well reviewed when it was published. The reviewer for the American Indian Quarterly, November 1979, vol. 5 no. 4, page 358, stated the book provides a "better understanding [of] these rich manifestations that combine religion, music, dance, theatre, and the interplay of workaday life with [a] world view among various cultures." Hultkrantz, Ake. The Religions of the American Indians. Trans. Monica Setterwall. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979. This work was included because of the non U.S. origins of the author who was a Professor of Comparative Religion and Chairman of Institute of Comparative Religion from 1958 to 1986 and is now Professor Emeritus of the University of Stockholm, Sweden. The author has divided his book into two parts. The first part covers North America while the second half deals with the Inca, Mayans, and Aztecs. The coverage of specific tribes is rather limited, for the author instead focuses more on identifying religious and ritual themes, such as the supernatural, medicine men, burial customs, and so forth, that are common to most of the peoples of the Americas. The author's hypotheses concerning the above religious and ritual themes are useful to the reader in providing a new look into the thinking behind the native people of the Americas and their religious and ritual beliefs. The main Indian tribes of the Southwest, the Apache, Hopi, Paiute, Papago, Pueblos, and Zuni, are mentioned in connection with certain religious and ceremonial beliefs and practices. Discussion of ritual is scattered throughout the book. This book is intended for a graduate student who is seeking an overview of the religious beliefs of the Native Americans primarily of North America. The author uses in-text citation and has provided a reference list of both North American and European writers along with a detailed index. The index is important, for the author has organized his book by chapters covering the common themes that he believes exist among the different tribes and the index is the only way to locate a specific people without having to read the whole book. The reviewer for The Christian Century, December 12 1979, vol. 96, page 1248, states that the author "leaves room for specialists to debate and generalists to quicken curiosity. A must." Underhill, Ruth M. Red Man's Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974. This work, like the one that just preceded it, attempts to cover in one volume the religious beliefs of the Native Americans. However, only North America is discussed because that was the area of expertise of the author, who was a Professor of Anthropology at the University of Denver, Denver, Colorado. Like Hultkrantz, Underhill has divided her book into chapters that cover certain themes, such as women power, hunting and gathering ceremonies, war ceremonies, and so forth, that she feels are found in each of the different tribes in North America. However, she has also included chapters on specific tribes such as the Pueblos and the Navahos and their ceremonies and rituals. As the author notes in her Foreword, the book is written in non-technical language and is intended for people who are just beginning to study the subject. However, the work is useful to the graduate student because it may be used to compare and contrast the theories of two writers, Hultkrantz and Underhill, to see where their ideas are similar and where they are not and to possibly provide ground for the germination of a new theory regarding some aspect of ceremony and ritual. The work is also useful because of the extensive bibliography that has been included. The graduate student would be able to use it to locate more technical writings on a subject of interest to him or her. The author, while not citing specific portions of works used, does give at the end of each chapter a list of references that were consulted by the her when composing the chapter. The index is detailed and arranged by broad topics. The index subjects are also cross referenced for easier use. Waddell, Jack O. and Michael W. Everett, eds. Drinking Behavior Among Southwestern Indians. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1980. This book was chosen for the interesting information that it contains on the ritual drinking, or absence of, among four Native American tribes of the Southwest. The main concern of the editors, Jack O. Waddell, Professor of Anthropology, Purdue University, and Michael W. Everett, Director, Tribal Health Authority, White Mountain Apache Tribe, White River, Arizona, was to bring together a collection of scholarly papers on the historical and current use of intoxicating beverages among the Pagagos, traditional ritual drinkers, the Pueblos, non-ritual drinkers, the Navajos, non-ritual drinkers, and the Apaches, non-ritual drinkers. While the main focus of the book is on the alcohol problem of these Native Americans, the parts that discus the ritual use of drink or the reasons for non-use are fascinating. The graduate student seeking historical information on ritual drinking would find this book very useful. The work contains four parts which are broken down into chapters which are actually short papers. Each author uses in-text citation with references given at the end of a chapter. Once again the index is well organized with broad headings which are further broken down into smaller topics which are arranged alphabetically. The reviewer for Choice, December 1980, vol. 18 no. 4, page 560, stated that the book was an excellent resource for the undergraduate through the professional. Books on Specific Native Americans of the Southwest and Their Ceremonies and Rituals Buskirk, Winfred. The Western Apache: Living with the land Before 1950. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986. This book was included because it covers the ceremonies and rituals of one of the Apache people, the Western Apache. Graduate students will find the detailed information contained in it useful for better understanding the Western Apaches ceremonies and rituals from an economic perspective. In the book, the Western Apaches economic practices are carefully studied and are then related to their culture. The author, who received his Doctorate in anthropology from the University of New Mexico, describes the peoples' specific ceremonies and rituals, their historical background, and the reasons for these occurring within an economic perspective. The author, who conducted his original research in the 1940's, was fortunate in obtaining some of his information from older people who had grown up in the 1870's and 1880's before their culture had been greatly affected by white people. The book contains notes as well as an extensive bibliography. The index is well organized but there is not a separate listing for rituals. In order to find information on these peoples' rituals, the reader must look under the headings of ceremonies or religion. As Morris E. Opler comments in the Foreword, the author wanted to study the economic practices of the Western Apache, but "he also sought to put them into context by relating them to the climate,...to Western Apache social organization, and to the influence of neighboring peoples and historical events" (xi). The author has certainly accomplished his goal. Downs, James F. The Navajo. Prospect Heights: Waveland, 1984. This work is a case study on a pastoral Navajo community, the Nez Ch'ii of Black Mesa, Navajo Reservation, conducted in the 1960's by the author, Professor of Anthropology at Hilo College and the Center for Cross-Cultural Training and Research at the University of Hawaii. The book contains a chapter on Religion which is further broken down into the different aspects of religion, including that of ritual. This book was chosen because of the discussion on ritual and its daily effects upon the Navajo in a small community. Ritual is a constant companion to these people who use it to ensure that the universe remains in balance. Rituals are discussed for both private and public ceremonies. The author also proposes an interesting theory that the Navajos use myths and the rituals associated with them to ensure group loyalty and cohesiveness. The book is written for the graduate student who has a need for specific information concerning the ceremonies and rituals of a small Navajo community. From this small community, the student may then expand the knowledge that has been gained and apply it to the larger Navajo culture. The work is arranged by chapters on specific topics. There is no index. However, the table of contents takes the place of the index by further breaking down the broad general headings into sub-headings with page numbers provided. The chapter on religion begins on page 95. The lack of an index does not inconvenience the researcher too much, for the information in this work is well worth the extra time spent in reading one chapter. As George and Louise Spindler state in the Foreword, "the treatment in this case study is unique" (iii) in its focus on the pastoral aspects of the Nez Ch'ii and how the social and cultural aspects of this people have been interwoven to maintain it. The author relies mainly on his field research to support his findings. He does include a list of references that he consulted in preparing his work. Kluckhohn, Clyde and Dorothea Leighton. The Navaho. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1960. This work was chosen because it is considered the principle authority on the Navaho, even though it was originally published in 1946. The graduate student who is studying these people will find this comprehensive and detailed book on them to be of the greatest assistance. Both the ceremonies and rituals of these people are described and discussed mainly from the view of this century. According to the authors', the "Navaho 'rituals' are socio-economic techniques...[combined with] their conceptions of supernatural forces, ever present and ever threatening" that are used to ensure their survival (121-122). There is some historical context given for each ritual and ceremony covered by the authors. The authors, Kluckhohn, Professor of Anthropology at Harvard University, and Leighton, a psychiatrist, bring to their study of these people the combined knowledge of their different fields which helps them better comprehend these people. The book is broken down into chapters. The table of contents contains chapter headings with page numbers. The headings are then sub-divided into specific headings that are found within that chapter. The book contains notes, bibliography, and an index under which ritual has its own subject heading are included. Under this heading, the reader is further directed to other subject headings that also deal with rituals. Black and white photo's are used in the book to show the present day Navaho in various activities, including one of gathering corn pollen for ceremonial use. Loftin, John D. Religion and Hopi Life in the Twentieth Century. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991. The author, a lawyer and also a teacher in the Department of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, describes and analyzes the Hopi religion from its beginnings up to the present day. In the beginning of the book, the author describes the religious culture of the Hopi, their ceremonies and rituals, and the historical aspect of their religion. In the second part of his book, the author focuses on the ceremonies and rituals of these people and how they are now changing as contact with main stream American culture has become more extensive. The problems that the Hopi face are brought forward and information is included on how they are attempting to cope with the challenges that they now face. This book was included in this bibliography because of its focus on the Hopi people, their religion, ceremonies, and rituals and the problems that they are now having to work through. By re-interpreting their traditional religious, ceremonial, and ritual heritage, the Hopi are attempting to cope with modern day problems. This book is suited to the graduate level student who wishes to examine how ceremonies and rituals are altered and ascribed new meanings as the culture they belong to attempts to deal with and adapt to the new challenges that threaten it. The book includes notes, bibliography, and an index. The index is not well organized. There is a heading for ritual but it gives only one page number. If the reader wishes to locate more information concerning rituals, he or she must either know the name of the ceremony in which a ritual is performed or be willing to read the book which is interesting and not a chore, but still time consuming. Despite the poor index, the work is useful. As Alfonso Ortiz, of the University of New Mexico, states on the book jacket, this book is "an important contribution to religious studies, to anthropology, and to Native American studies in general." Ortiz, Alfonso, ed. New Perspectives on the Pueblos. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1972. This work was chosen because of the information that it contains on the Pueblo people and their rituals and ceremonies. The editor, Professor of Anthropology at the University of New Mexico, has brought together a collection of papers that took shape from work begun at an advanced seminar at the School of American Research in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Four papers contained in the book are of particular interest to the graduate student who is seeking information on the ceremonies and rituals of these people. These papers discuss and analyze in scholarly detail the ecological influence, ritual drama, ritual clown, and religious aspects of the ceremonies and rituals of the different groups that comprise the Pueblos, in order to determine why they evolved and what purpose they serve. The work is arranged by chapters which are actually papers that are further divided by sub-topics. The table of contents, notes, bibliography, and index are very well organized and make searching for specific information simple compared to other books included in this bibliography. The book is of very high quality both in the information it contains as well as its organizational lay out. E.B. Danson, the reviewer for the American Journal of Archaeology 1973, vol. 77, page 260, found the work extremely useful in the study of the Pueblo people. Underhill, Ruth M. Papago Indian Religion. New York: AMS, 1969. This book was chosen because it deals with a specific Southwest tribe, the Papago and their ceremonies and rituals. The author, Ruth Underhill, an Anthropology Professor at the University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, gathered the information contained in this volume between 1931 and 1935. The religion of the Papago people is examined in great detail. The ceremonies and rituals for hunting, intervillage games, warfare, and so on are covered. The author includes detailed translations of the ritual songs and speeches given at the various ceremonies held by the Papago along with other ritual aspects that take place. The technical level of this work, makes the book suitable to the graduate student who is searching for specific information on the rituals and ceremonies of the Papago. This book will be useful to him or her in obtaining the information that he or she needs. The book is arranged in five parts, the introduction, communal ceremonies, individual ceremonies, the use of power, and acculturation to modern life. The work contains footnotes, bibliography, and an index. The index does not have a separate subject heading for ritual. To find the information on ritual, the reader must either know the name of the ceremony in which the ritual is used, read the book, or read the second chapter which contains a brief overview of the common rituals that are used by the Papago. For more detailed information the reader must read a specific chapter. Stevenson, Matilda Coxe. "The Zuni Indians: Their Mythology, Esoteric Fraternities, and Ceremonies." Bureau of American EthnologyAnnual Report. 23 (1901-1902): 3-634, Reprint 1970, Glorieta: Rio Grande. This work was included because of its focus on one of the Pueblo groups, the Zuni and their ceremonies and rituals, and also because many of the later writers, including some in this bibliography, cited this book as a reference. The book is fascinating for the detailed descriptions that it contains concerning the ceremonies and rituals of the Zuni. The author and her husband, James, began gathering their information in 1879. Upon her husbands death, the author continued to do field work up to the date of publication of this volume which contains both her knowledge and information gathered by her husband, James. The graduate student who is seeking first hand descriptions of the Zuni ceremonies and rituals from the turn of the century will find this work of use to him or her. The reader must keep in mind that the writer does, in some cases, impose her own value system when passing judgment upon a particular ritual or ceremony. While she may find a ritual disgusting, and often says so, her description of what takes place is as accurate as she is able to make it. The author also uses many Zuni words and names which are defined once in English. If the reader misses the definition, he or she may look in the index for the term. The English translation is often included in the index after the native word. The author uses footnotes when citing sources. A bibliography is not included. The index does not contain a subject heading for ritual. The reader must know the name of the ceremony in which the ritual occurs. The table of contents is also helpful in locating information on rituals and ceremonies though this information is scattered all the way through the book. Black and white and color illustrations along with black and white photographs are included showing various ritual objects and ceremonies. A review of this book could not be located. However, since many authors refer to the information contained in it, the information must be valid. Suggested Ritual Theory Book van Gennep, Arnold. Rites of Passage. Trans. Monika B. Vizedom and Gabrielle L. Caffee. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960. This book was cited by many of the works that I consulted regarding the theory of ritual. From what the other writers mentioned in their own books, van Gennep identified a class of rituals concerned with transitions from one state to another. As Peter Metcalf and Richard Huntington state in their book, Celebrations of Death: The Anthropology of Mortuary Ritual, second edition, van Gennep's theory "allows us to make sense of rituals in particular social and religious contexts, and equally in our own or in remote cultures" (30). Van Gennep's book was originally published in France in 1909, but the information that it contains has withstood the passage of time and are still relevant today.