"Webliography" LI 804 Bibliography Project

Bibliography- Rituals and Ceremonies of U.S. Southwestern Native Americans

Lance Wiscamb

LI804 Colorado

	For my annotated bibliography topic, I was given Ritual and 
Information.  I had trouble with this topic at first.  I understood the 
meaning of ritual and of information separately, but not together.  When I 
entered these two terms together in the different  library computer 
catalogs I searched, the terms did not bring up anything.  However, when 
the words were typed into the computer separately, many books were 
listed.  I finally E-mailed my professors for a clarification on my topic.  
They E-mailed back that I should consider looking into the field of 
anthropology and the information conveyed by ritual practices.  I then 
narrowed my topic down to books that contained information on the Native 
American rituals and ceremonies of the United States Southwest.  I 
included ceremonies because when I began to look through the books I had, 
most of them did not list rituals as a separate index subject heading but 
included them under ceremonies.  Once I went to a particular page 
reference concerning a ceremony, I found that the rituals associated with 
it were discussed.   I E-mailed my revised topic to the professors who 
thought it a fine idea.  They did suggest I include some general theoretical 
books on just why humans need/use ritual.  This I have done.

	Once I had narrowed my topic down to a more manageable one, I then 
decided who my audience would be and what their information 
requirements were.  The professors for the class had already said that my 
audience would be graduate students enrolled in a graduate seminar on my 
topic.  For this reason, I decided that my bibliography would not try to list 
every book or journal article on the subject, but would instead, list a 
selected collection of the most highly regarded, unusual, and useful works 
on the subject.  

	I began my search in the Denver Public Library computer catalog.  I 
used a variety of search terms.  I started with the term Native Americans 
- U.S. Southwest.  This combination only brought up a few books.  I then 
decided to try the non-politically correct term Indians of the  U.S. 
Southwest.  This combination brought up many books.  I then looked at the 
Library of Congress subject headings and used those to locate more books.  
For the rest of my computer searches, I added the terms religion, ritual, 
ceremonies, and rites.  I did not use the term Native American again.  I 
was surprised that the term was not being used more often in cataloging.  
I assume that the Library of Congress has not changed their subject 
heading yet and that is why so few books are cataloged that way.  The 
books that I found here, contained excellent bibliographies from which I 
selected additional books that I thought might be interesting.  
Unfortunately, Denver did not own them or they were checked out.  I moved 
my search to an academic library.  

	When I finished searching the Denver Public Library, I shifted my 
search to the Auraria Library.  Here I used the same word combinations 
that I used at the Denver Public Library.  I found many of the works that I 
included in my bibliography at this library.  

	While the Auraria Library contained a large resource base for my 
topic, I felt that I needed to also search some additional databases.  Using 
the same terms as in my previous search, I went through the combined 
computer catalog of the Arapahoe and Aurora Library Districts and found 
more books that were useful in preparing my bibliography.  The databases 
found in FirstSearch, primarily WorldCat which contains the catalogs of 
over 18,000 libraries and their holdings including books, journals, maps, 
and audiovisual materials, were also consulted.  For locating journal 
articles, I used InfoTrac and articles listed in the bibliographies of the 
different books that I found.  After examining many of these articles, I 
came to the realization that most of the writers of these articles later 
expanded them into book format and that I had many of these books.  
Because of this finding, I decided to include only books in my bibliography.  
The last place I conducted my search was on the Internet/WorldWide Web.  
For this search, I did use the term Native American along with the names 
of specific Native American tribes.  I had more luck with these terms than 
in my previous searches, probably because this resource is newer than the 
others and the contributors to it do not go by Library of Congress subject 
headings.  While I did locate several very interesting home pages relating 
to Native Americans, these pages dealt more with current issues and 
events and not with rituals and ceremonies.

	Once my search was completed, I began the process of evaluating my 
sources and arranging them into a suitable format.  For the evaluation, I 
used as my criteria the items that the professors listed on their handout 
for inclusion in the annotation.  I chose mainly books that were published 
by university presses.  I attempted to locate biographical data on the 
author's whose works I intended to include in my bibliography.  I consulted 
Contemporary Authors, Current Biography, and the book jacket and 
foreword of the book for clues to the author's credentials.  In a few cases, 
I was unable to locate any biographical material on the author.  When this 
occurred, I based my evaluation on whether the writer had been positively 
mentioned by another, well respected authority in his or her subject field.   
I also used reviews for the books I had chosen to help judge a work's 
quality.  Since many of my books were scholarly in nature, I used the 
Combined Retro Index to Book Reviews in Scholarly journals 1886-1974 to 
search for book reviews.  I also found reviews for some of my books in 
Book Review Index.  I did not have much luck with Book Review Digest.  
When I was unable to find a review or to obtain a copy of the journal in 
which the book was reviewed, I either used the Foreword written by 
someone else or a quote from a reviewer found on the book jacket.  The 
user will notice that many of the books included in this bibliography were 
published sometime ago.  These works were used because they are 
considered the authoritative books on that specific topic and later writers 
constantly refer back to them.

	When the evaluation process was finished, I then began the task of 
organizing the information that I had collected.  Since the bibliography is 
intended for use in a graduate seminar, the books that have been included 
were selected for several different  purposes in mind. The reasons for 
their selection are: technical detail on the subject, general overview 
provided, evolution of the ceremonies and rituals, and primary accounts of 
both past and modern ceremonies and rituals.  I have included a variety of 
specific/non-specific books.  By this, I mean that some of the books 
contain a collection of information regarding different peoples found in 
the Southwest while others are written on only one specific tribe, like the 
Hopi.  Books containing first person experiences with the people of the 
Southwest have also been used.  The books contained in this bibliography 
cover ceremonies and rituals from before contact with Europeans 
occurred, up to the present day.  

	The bibliography is divided into four parts.  The first part contains 
books on ritual theory.  These books are intended for the graduate student 
who needs a background in the theories of why people need and use ritual.  
In the second part, are books that focus on rituals and ceremonies of 
various tribes of the Southwest.  In many of these works, information is 
contained on the smaller tribes on which few if any books have been 
written.  The books range from information on a specific ritual aspect 
found in the Southwest to more general books on the religions and the 
ceremonies and rituals found in the area.  The graduate student would use 
these works as an overview on the subject.  In the third part, books 
written on specific Native American peoples are listed.  The graduate 
student would read these books in order to study more in depth, a certain 
group.  The last part contains a book that I was unable to obtain because it 
was checked out or missing at the libraries that had it, and was not 
available through inter-library loan, but which I feel would be of use to 
the graduate student in the area of ritual theory.

Ritual Theory

Bell, Catherine.  Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice.  New York: Oxford 

	Press, 1992.

	This work was chosen for the information that it contains regarding 
why humans need and use ritual.  The book is also useful in showing the 
reader one of the new directions in which the field is moving, by 
presenting the author's theory on the subject of ritual.  The scholarly 
focus of the book makes it suitable for graduate level students.  The 
author analyzes the category of ritual and proposes another framework to 
assess ritual activity.  In order to accomplish this goal, the book is 
divided into three parts.  The first part discusses the history of the 
subject and the various theories that have been proposed for why humans 
use and need ritual.  In the second part, the author's new framework for 
her theory of ritual is presented.  She proposes "a focus on 'ritualization' 
as a strategic way of acting and then turn to explore how and why this 
way of acting differentiates itself from other practices" (7).  In the third 
part, the author uses her new framework to demonstrate that ritual is 
used to create a limited, ever changing power relationship among social 
groups.  The book is well organized, containing an index, notes section, and 
a detailed bibliography from which students who wish to read additional 
books on the subject may refer.  The reviewer for the Journal of Religion, 
April 1993, vol. 73 page 289, 501, found the work to be very well done.    

de Waal Malefijt, Annemarie.  Religion and Culture: An Introduction to

	Anthropology of Religion.  New York: Macmillan, 1968.

	Annemarie de Waal Malefijt, Professor of Anthropology at Hunter 
College City University of New York, has written an excellent introductory 
book on the many aspects of religion, including theories on why humans 
need and use ritual.  The theories of ritual are discussed within the 
broader scope of religion providing a well rounded coverage of the subject 
of religion and ritual.  This book is well suited to the graduate student 
who needs a refresher on the topic or for the student who has had very 
little exposure to the topic of religion and the theories that are 
associated with it.  The book is divided into chapters, Ritual is ch. 7 page 
172, and has a well organized bibliography arranged alphabetically.  The 
author uses in-text citation.  The book was well reviewed.  As the 
reviewer for the History of Religion, May 1970, vol. 9 no. 4, page 344, 
commented, "as an introductory course book to religion for students of 
anthropology, this is a very useful book."    

Grimes, Ronald L.  Beginnings in Ritual Studies.  rev. ed.  Columbia: 
University of

	South Carolina Press, 1995.

	This book was included because of its multi-disciplinary coverage of 
the study of ritual theory.  The author, Professor of Religion and Culture 
at Wilfrid Laurier University in Waterloo, Canada, focuses not only on 
religious ritual theory but also ritual theory in other academic 
disciplines.  According to Grimes, students of ritual "are isolated from 
one another in various fields: liturgics, religious studies, anthropology, 
drama..." even though they are studying the same basic concepts of ritual 
and that all of these areas are actually shoots sprouting from a common 
center, "the academic study of ritual"(xxvi).  This work is arranged in 
parts and further divided into chapters which are actually short essays 
covering specific topics.  The topics covered deal with ritual's 
relationship to the religious, civil, medical, and theatrical aspects of 
human culture and the reasons why humans need and use ritual in these 
areas.  In addition to these topics, the author discusses the various 
theories of ritual that are in existence.  The book contains end notes, 
bibliography, and a detailed index.  The work is useful to the graduate 
student who is entering the field of ritual studies and wishes to become 
more familiar with the many areas, besides religious studies,  included in 
the broad label of ritual theory.  The reviewer for the Journal of the 
American Academy of Religion states that "no one has moved through this 
field with such verve, imagination, and playful intelligence as Grimes 
does."  Quote taken from the back cover of book.

Books on Rituals and Ceremonies of  North American 

Southwestern Native Americans

Collier, John.  On the Gleaming Way: Navajos, Eastern Pueblos, Zunis, 

	Apaches, and Their Land; and Their Meanings to the World.  

	Denver: Sage Books, 1962.

	This book was included because of the author's first hand accounts 
of these Southwestern peoples and their ceremonies and rituals.  The 
author's association with Native Americans began in 1922 as executive 
secretary of the American Indian Defense Association.  Later, he was the 
U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs from 1933-1945 and later still 
Professor of Sociology and Anthropology at City College New York.  His 
coverage of the these people is mainly based upon his experiences when 
living among them.  Descriptions are given of the areas in which they live 
and their histories.  First hand accounts are given for various ceremonies 
and rituals both religious and secular and the meanings behind them.  This 
book is best suited to students who wish an overview of these people and 
their customs.  The book is organized by chapters.  Unfortunately, the 
author did not include an index which makes it difficult to go directly to 
the subject areas of ceremonies and rituals.  Instead, one must read each 
chapter to find the sections dealing with these topics.  The author also did 
not include a bibliography.  He relied mainly upon his own knowledge of 
these peoples.  When he does refer to an outside source, such as Clyde 
Kluckhohn's work on the Navajos, it is cited in the text.  The organization 
of the book makes accessing the useful information that it contains 
difficult but well worth the effort.  The reviewer for the Southwest  
Review, 1962, vol. 47 no. 3, page viii, found the work to be very 
interesting despite the lack of an index.    

Collins, John James.  Native American Religions: A Geographical Survey.  

	Lewiston: Edwin Mellen, 1991.

	This book is useful for the fact that the author has taken other more 
in depth works on a single Native American tribe and has extracted the 
information concerning ceremonies and rituals contained within them and 
has brought them all together into this one volume.  This work is also 
helpful since it attempts to discuss the rituals and ceremonies of the 
Native Americans as they existed at the time that European contact 
occurred.  The information is organized by geographic regions covering all 
of  North America.  The first chapters deal with the tribes of the 
Southwest, giving a brief cultural history, and are then followed by 
chapters on their religious ceremonies and rituals.  The book has two 
indexes. One is an index of the tribes and language groupings that are 
specifically mentioned and the second index is of the religious rites 
mentioned by name.  The indexes are mildly helpful in telling you what is 
in the book.  However, while pages are given for specific tribes and names 
of rituals, the reader still must go to each page listed in order to 
determine which ceremony is being discussed for that tribe on that page 
or which tribes participate in a ceremony that is listed in the second 
index.  The author does provide a bibliography and references at the end of 
each grouping of chapters dealing with a specific people.  This format is 
helpful in permitting the reader to look only at sources for the tribes that 
interest him or her.  The reader is then able to locate sources that are 
more in depth on a particular tribe.  As the author states in his 
introduction, this work "is not meant for the specialist in such studies" 
but is directed  "to the general reader and to college students who are 
interested in American Indian culture"(xvii).

Curtis, Edward S.  The North American Indian.  vols.. 1, 2,12.  Ed. Weston La 

	New York: Johnson Reprint, 1970. 20vols. 

	These volumes, originally published in 1907 and 1922, contain 
information on the Apache, Jicarillas, Navaho, Hopi and other minor tribes 
of the U.S. Southwest.  The major ceremonies and rituals of these peoples 
are discussed along with other cultural information.  This work was 
included not only because of this coverage, but also because of the 
photographs of these people in their ritual dress.  The author's field was 
mainly that of a photographer and he has included many of his photographs 
in these volumes.  The actual research and field work, besides that of the 
photographer, appears to have been done by W. W. Phillips and W. E. Myers, 
beginning in 1898, who the author acknowledges for their assistance in 
collecting and arranging the material for these volumes in his 
introduction.  These books are useful for college students who are seeking 
first hand, detailed accounts of these tribes and their ceremonies and 
rituals.  Students who are visual learners will also find the books of 
interest because of the black and white photograph's of these people in 
their ritual outfits.  Each volume is organized by chapters covering 
specific topics and tribes.  The index is very detailed.  A bibliography and 
references are not included and the reader must assume that the 
information presented is from the author's and his assistants field 
research.  The reader of today must also overlook the condescending and 
flowery language of the writers towards the Native Americans of the 
Southwest and realize that underneath it, is some useful information 
concerning their ceremonies and rituals.  As Theodore Roosevelt states in 
the Foreword, Edward S. Curtis "has not only seen their [Native Americans] 
vigorous outward existence, but has caught glimpses, such as few white 
men ever catch, into that strange spiritual and mental life of theirs" and 
by publishing this book he "is rendering a real and great service...to the 
world of scholarship everywhere."   

Dutton, Bertha P.  American Indians of the Southwest.  Albuquerque:

	University of New Mexico Press, 1994.

	This work was included because it offers a current, well researched 
introduction of the history of the Native Americans of the Southwest in 
the United States, a contemporary view of tribal affairs, and a view of the 
cultural and social characteristics that are unique to each group.  The book 
is intended as a background source which the college student would first 
read before going on to the other books contained in this bibliography.  The 
author worked for the Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe in the Anthropology 
Division.  When she left the museum, she was the curator of that 
department.  She later went on to become the director of the Museum of 
Navajo Ceremonial Art until she left that position in 1975 and went into 
business for herself.  The author has divided her book into chapters that 
cover the specific people who live in the Southwest.  She uses in-text 
citation and has an extensive bibliography and a well organized index.  As 
Charlotte J. Frisbie, of Southern Illinois University, stated on the back of  
the book's cover, "sound and informative and should be starred reading for 
all those with an awakening interest in Southwestern Indians, arts and 
crafts, and contemporary Indian affairs."

Frisbie, Charlotte J., ed.  Southwestern Indian Ritual Drama.  Albuquerque:

	University of New Mexico Press, 1980.

	This book is a fascinating collection of papers prepared for an 
advanced seminar  sponsored by the School of American Research in 1978.  
The editor, Charlotte J. Frisbie,  Department of Anthropology, Southern 
Illinois University at Edwardsville, has done an excellent job of organizing 
the book which is broken down into chapters, with each chapter 
representing one paper on a certain ritual.  Each of the participants wrote 
about an aspect of music or dance that appears in the ritual drama of the 
Southwest.  The rituals covered are Zuni Kachina Society Songs, Hopi 
Ogres Drama, Picuris Deer Dance, Mescalero Apache Girls' Puberty 
Ceremony, Navajo House Blessing Ceremony, Navajo Shootingway, Papago 
Skipping Dance, and Havasupai Song.  This work was chosen because of the 
detailed and well researched papers covering the above topics and is 
meant to be read by graduate level students who wish to read a more in 
depth book after having finished the other books contained in this section 
of the bibliography.  A notes section is included for each paper at the end 
of each chapter while a reference section for the whole book is provided 
at the end.  The index is also very well done and detailed.  Broad subject 
headings are given and then the specific information under the headings is 
arranged alphabetically.  The book was very well reviewed when it was 
published.  The reviewer for the American Indian Quarterly, November 
1979, vol. 5 no. 4, page 358, stated the book provides a "better 
understanding [of] these rich manifestations that combine religion, music, 
dance, theatre, and the interplay of workaday life with [a] world view 
among various cultures."

Hultkrantz, Ake.  The Religions of the American Indians.  Trans. Monica 

	Setterwall.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.

	This work was included because of the non U.S. origins of the author 
who was a Professor of Comparative Religion and Chairman of Institute of 
Comparative Religion from 1958 to 1986 and is now Professor Emeritus of 
the University of Stockholm, Sweden.  The author has divided his book into 
two parts.  The first part covers North America while the second half 
deals with the Inca, Mayans, and Aztecs.  The coverage of specific tribes 
is rather limited, for the author instead focuses more on identifying 
religious and ritual themes, such as the supernatural, medicine men, 
burial customs, and so forth, that are common to most of the peoples of 
the Americas.  The author's hypotheses concerning the above religious and 
ritual themes are useful to the reader in providing a new look into the 
thinking behind the native people of the Americas and their religious and 
ritual beliefs.  The main Indian tribes of the Southwest, the Apache, Hopi, 
Paiute, Papago, Pueblos, and Zuni, are mentioned in connection with 
certain religious and ceremonial beliefs and practices.  Discussion of 
ritual is scattered throughout the book.  This book is intended for a 
graduate student who is seeking an overview of the religious beliefs of 
the Native Americans primarily of North America.  The author uses in-text 
citation and has provided a reference list of both North American and 
European writers along with a detailed index.  The index is important, for 
the author has organized his book by chapters covering the common themes 
that he believes exist among the different tribes and the index is the only 
way to locate a specific people without having to read the whole book.  
The reviewer for The Christian Century, December 12 1979, vol. 96, page 
1248, states that the author "leaves room for specialists to debate and 
generalists to quicken curiosity.  A must."

Underhill, Ruth M.  Red Man's Religion.  Chicago: University of Chicago 


	This work, like the one that just preceded it, attempts to cover in 
one volume the religious beliefs of the Native Americans.  However, only 
North America is discussed because that was the area of expertise of the 
author, who was a Professor of Anthropology at the University of Denver, 
Denver, Colorado.  Like Hultkrantz, Underhill has divided her book into 
chapters that cover certain themes, such as women power, hunting and 
gathering ceremonies, war ceremonies, and so forth, that she feels are 
found in each of the different tribes in North America.  However, she has 
also included chapters on specific tribes such as the Pueblos and the 
Navahos and their ceremonies and rituals.   As the author notes in her 
Foreword, the book is written in non-technical language and is intended 
for people who are just beginning to study the subject.  However, the work 
is useful to the graduate student because it may be used to compare and 
contrast the theories of two writers, Hultkrantz and Underhill, to see 
where their ideas are similar and where they are not and to possibly 
provide ground for the germination of a new theory regarding some aspect 
of ceremony and ritual.  The work is also useful because of the extensive 
bibliography that has been included.  The graduate student would be able to 
use it to locate more technical writings on a subject of interest to him or 
her.  The author, while not citing specific portions of works used, does 
give at the end of each chapter a list of references that were consulted by 
the her when composing the chapter.  The index is detailed and arranged by 
broad topics.  The index subjects are also cross referenced for easier use.

Waddell, Jack O. and Michael W. Everett, eds.  Drinking Behavior Among

	Southwestern Indians.  Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1980.

	This book was chosen for the interesting information that it 
contains on the ritual drinking, or absence of, among four Native American 
tribes of the Southwest.  The main concern of the editors, Jack O. Waddell, 
Professor of Anthropology, Purdue University, and Michael W. Everett, 
Director, Tribal Health Authority, White Mountain Apache Tribe, White 
River, Arizona, was to bring together a collection of scholarly papers on 
the historical and current use of intoxicating beverages among the 
Pagagos, traditional ritual drinkers, the Pueblos, non-ritual drinkers, the 
Navajos, non-ritual drinkers, and the Apaches, non-ritual drinkers.  While 
the main focus of the book is on the alcohol problem of these Native 
Americans, the parts that discus the ritual use of drink or the reasons for 
non-use are fascinating.  The graduate student seeking historical 
information on ritual drinking would find this book very useful.  The work 
contains four parts which are broken down into chapters which are 
actually short papers.  Each author uses in-text citation with references 
given at the end of a chapter.  Once again the index is well organized with 
broad headings which are further broken down into smaller topics which 
are arranged alphabetically.  The reviewer for Choice, December 1980, vol. 
18 no. 4, page 560, stated that the book was an excellent resource for the 
undergraduate through the professional.

Books on Specific Native Americans of the Southwest

and Their Ceremonies and Rituals

Buskirk, Winfred.  The Western Apache: Living with the land Before 1950.

	Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986.

	This book was included because it covers the ceremonies and rituals 
of one of the Apache people, the Western Apache.  Graduate students will 
find the detailed information contained in it useful for better 
understanding the Western Apaches ceremonies and rituals from an 
economic perspective.  In the book, the Western Apaches economic 
practices are carefully studied and are then related to their culture.  The 
author, who received his Doctorate in anthropology from the University of 
New Mexico, describes the peoples' specific ceremonies and rituals, their 
historical background, and the reasons for these occurring within an 
economic perspective.   The author, who conducted his original research in 
the 1940's, was fortunate in obtaining some of his information from older 
people who had grown up in the 1870's and 1880's before their culture had 
been greatly affected by white people.   The book contains notes as well as 
an extensive bibliography.  The index is well organized but there is not a 
separate listing for rituals.  In order to find information on these peoples' 
rituals, the reader must look under the headings of ceremonies or religion.  
As Morris E. Opler comments in the Foreword, the author wanted to study 
the economic practices of the Western Apache, but "he also sought to put 
them into context by relating them to the climate,...to Western Apache 
social organization, and to the influence of neighboring peoples and 
historical events" (xi).  The author has certainly accomplished his goal.

Downs, James F.  The Navajo.  Prospect Heights: Waveland, 1984.

	This work is a case study on a pastoral Navajo community, the Nez 
Ch'ii of Black Mesa, Navajo Reservation, conducted in the 1960's by the 
author, Professor of Anthropology at Hilo College and the Center for 
Cross-Cultural Training and Research at the University of Hawaii.  The 
book contains a chapter on Religion which is further broken down into the 
different aspects of religion, including that of ritual.  This book was 
chosen because of the discussion on ritual and its daily effects upon the 
Navajo in a small community.  Ritual is a constant companion to these 
people who use it to ensure that the universe remains in balance.  Rituals 
are discussed for both private and public ceremonies.  The author also 
proposes an interesting theory that the Navajos use myths and the rituals 
associated with them to ensure group loyalty and cohesiveness.  The book 
is written for the graduate student who has a need for specific 
information concerning the ceremonies and rituals of a small Navajo 
community.  From this small community, the student may then expand the 
knowledge that has been gained and apply it to the larger Navajo culture.  
The work is arranged by chapters on specific topics.  There is no index.  
However, the table of contents takes the place of the index by further 
breaking down the broad general headings into sub-headings with page 
numbers provided.  The chapter on religion begins on page 95.  The lack of 
an index does not inconvenience the researcher too much, for the 
information in this work is well worth the extra time spent in reading one 
chapter.  As George and Louise Spindler state in the Foreword, "the 
treatment in this case study is unique" (iii) in its focus on the pastoral 
aspects of the Nez Ch'ii and how the social and cultural aspects of this 
people have been interwoven to maintain it.  The author relies mainly on 
his field research to support his findings.  He does include a list of 
references that he consulted in preparing his work.

Kluckhohn, Clyde and Dorothea Leighton.  The Navaho.  Cambridge: Harvard

	University Press, 1960.

	This work was chosen because it is considered the principle 
authority on the Navaho, even though it was originally published in 1946.  
The graduate student who is studying these people will find this 
comprehensive and detailed book on them to be of the greatest assistance.  
Both the ceremonies and rituals of these people are described and 
discussed mainly from the view of this century.  According to the authors', 
the "Navaho 'rituals' are socio-economic techniques...[combined with] their 
conceptions of supernatural forces, ever present and ever threatening"  
that are used to ensure their survival (121-122).  There is some historical 
context given for each ritual and ceremony covered by the authors.  The 
authors, Kluckhohn, Professor of Anthropology at Harvard University, and 
Leighton, a psychiatrist, bring to their study of these people the combined 
knowledge of their different fields which helps them better comprehend 
these people.  The book is broken down into chapters.  The table of 
contents contains chapter headings with page numbers.  The headings are 
then sub-divided into specific headings that are found within that chapter.  
The book contains notes, bibliography, and an index under which ritual has 
its own subject heading are included.  Under this heading, the reader is 
further directed to other subject headings that also deal with rituals.  
Black and white photo's are used in the book to show the present day 
Navaho in various activities, including one of gathering corn pollen for 
ceremonial use.  

Loftin, John D.  Religion and Hopi Life in the Twentieth Century.  

	Indiana University Press, 1991.

	The author, a lawyer and also a teacher in the Department of 
Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,  
describes and analyzes the Hopi religion from its beginnings up to the 
present day.  In the beginning of the book, the author describes the 
religious culture of the Hopi, their ceremonies and rituals, and the 
historical aspect of their religion.  In the second part of his book, the 
author focuses on the ceremonies and rituals of these people and how they 
are now changing as contact with main stream American culture has 
become more extensive.  The problems that the Hopi face are brought 
forward and information is included on how they are attempting to cope 
with the challenges that they now face.  This book was included in this 
bibliography because of its focus on the Hopi people, their religion, 
ceremonies, and rituals and the problems that they are now having to  
work through.  By re-interpreting their traditional religious, ceremonial, 
and ritual heritage, the Hopi are attempting to cope with modern day 
problems.  This book is suited to the graduate level student who wishes to 
examine how ceremonies and rituals are altered and ascribed new 
meanings as the culture they belong to attempts to deal with and adapt to 
the new challenges that threaten it.  The book includes notes, 
bibliography, and an index.  The index is not well organized.  There is a 
heading for ritual but it gives only one page number.  If the reader wishes 
to locate more information concerning rituals, he or she must either know 
the name of the ceremony in which a ritual is performed or be willing to 
read the book which is interesting and not a chore, but still time 
consuming.  Despite the poor index, the work is useful.  As Alfonso Ortiz, 
of the University of New Mexico, states on the book jacket, this book is 
"an important contribution to religious studies, to anthropology, and to 
Native American studies in general."

Ortiz, Alfonso, ed.  New Perspectives on the Pueblos.  Albuquerque: 

	University of New Mexico Press, 1972.

	This work was chosen because of the information that it contains on 
the Pueblo people and their rituals and ceremonies.  The editor, Professor 
of Anthropology at the University of New Mexico, has brought together a 
collection of papers that took shape from work begun at an advanced 
seminar at the School of American Research in Santa Fe, New Mexico.  Four 
papers contained in the book are of particular interest to the graduate 
student who is seeking information on the ceremonies and rituals of these 
people.  These papers discuss and analyze in scholarly detail the 
ecological influence,  ritual drama, ritual clown, and religious aspects of 
the ceremonies and rituals of  the different groups that comprise the 
Pueblos, in order to determine why they evolved and what purpose they 
serve.  The work is arranged by chapters which are actually papers that 
are further divided by sub-topics.  The table of contents, notes, 
bibliography, and index are very well organized and make searching for 
specific information simple compared to other books included in this 
bibliography.  The book is of very high quality both in the information it 
contains as well as its organizational lay out.  E.B. Danson, the reviewer 
for the American Journal of Archaeology 1973, vol. 77, page 260, found 
the work extremely useful in the study of the Pueblo people.

Underhill, Ruth M.  Papago Indian Religion.  New York: AMS, 1969.

	This book was chosen because it deals with a specific Southwest 
tribe, the Papago and their ceremonies and rituals.  The author, Ruth 
Underhill, an Anthropology Professor at the University of Denver, Denver, 
Colorado, gathered the information contained in this volume between 1931 
and 1935.  The religion of the Papago people is examined in great detail.  
The ceremonies and rituals for hunting, intervillage games, warfare, and 
so on are covered.  The author includes detailed translations of the ritual 
songs and speeches given at the various ceremonies held by the Papago 
along with other ritual aspects that take place.  The technical level of 
this work, makes the book suitable to the graduate student who is 
searching for specific information on the rituals and ceremonies of the 
Papago.  This book will be useful to him or her in obtaining the 
information that he or she needs.  The book is arranged in five parts, the 
introduction, communal ceremonies, individual ceremonies, the use of 
power, and acculturation to modern life.  The work contains footnotes, 
bibliography, and an index.  The index does not have a separate subject 
heading for ritual.  To find the information on ritual, the reader must 
either know the name of the ceremony in which the ritual is used, read the 
book, or read the second chapter which contains a brief overview of the 
common rituals that are used by the Papago.  For more detailed 
information the reader must read a specific chapter.

Stevenson, Matilda Coxe.  "The Zuni Indians: Their Mythology, Esoteric 

	and Ceremonies." Bureau of American EthnologyAnnual Report.  

	23 (1901-1902): 3-634, Reprint 1970, Glorieta: Rio Grande. 

	This work was included because of its focus on one of the Pueblo 
groups, the Zuni and their ceremonies and rituals, and also because many 
of the later writers, including some in this bibliography, cited this book 
as a reference.  The book is fascinating for the detailed  descriptions that 
it contains concerning the ceremonies and rituals of the Zuni.  The author 
and her husband, James, began gathering their information in 1879.  Upon 
her husbands death, the author continued to do field work up to the date of 
publication of this volume which contains both her knowledge and 
information gathered by her husband, James.  The graduate student who is 
seeking first hand descriptions of the Zuni ceremonies and rituals from 
the turn of the century will find this work of use to him or her.  The 
reader must keep in mind that the writer does, in some cases, impose her 
own value system when passing judgment upon a particular ritual or 
ceremony.  While she may find a ritual disgusting, and often says so, her 
description of  what takes place is as accurate as she is able to make it.  
The author also uses many Zuni words and names which are defined once in 
English.  If the reader misses the definition, he or she may look in the 
index for the term.  The English translation is often included in the index 
after the native word.  The author uses footnotes when citing sources.  A 
bibliography is not included.  The index does not contain a subject heading 
for ritual.  The reader must know the name of the ceremony in which the 
ritual occurs.  The table of contents is also helpful in locating information 
on rituals and ceremonies though this information is scattered all the way 
through the book.  Black and white and color illustrations along with black 
and white photographs are included showing various ritual objects and 
ceremonies.  A review of this book could not be located.  However, since 
many authors refer to the information contained in it, the information 
must be valid.  

Suggested Ritual Theory Book

van Gennep, Arnold.  Rites of Passage.  Trans. Monika B. Vizedom and

	Gabrielle L. Caffee.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960.

	This book was cited by many of the works that I consulted regarding 
the theory of ritual.  From what the other writers mentioned in their own 
books, van Gennep identified a class of rituals concerned with transitions 
from one state to another.  As Peter Metcalf and Richard Huntington state 
in their book, Celebrations of Death: The Anthropology of Mortuary Ritual, 
second edition,  van Gennep's theory "allows us to make sense of rituals in 
particular social and religious contexts, and equally in our own or in 
remote cultures" (30).   Van Gennep's book was originally published in 
France in 1909, but the information that it contains has withstood the 
passage of time and are still relevant today.